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Project # FHWA # Title Authors Report Completion Date
Show Abstract R27-094 FHWA-ICT-15-007 Performance Evaluation of Snow and Ice Plows S. Elhour, D. Dragoo, Y. Khodair, Y.-S. Li 11/20/2015
Removal of ice and snow from road surfaces is a critical task in the northern tier of the United States, including Illinois. Highways with high levels of traffic are expected to be cleared of snow and ice quickly after each snow storm. This is necessary for maintaining the safety of the public and the efficiency of the highway system. In 2011, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) initiated a research project to conduct a comprehensive study to evaluate the performance of snow and ice plows. The project targeted several plow performance indicators including blade type, scraping forces, and shock acceleration, among other suggested parameters. The project involved a literature review, a synthesis of best practices in snow and ice plowing operations, development of a plow and blade performance evaluation procedure, instrumentation of a snow plow and the carrying out of field tests, development of finite element models to synthesize a comprehensive performance database, and documentation of project results.
Show Abstract R27-090 FHWA-ICT-15-016 Investigation of Contributing Factors Regarding Wrong-Way Driving on Freeways, Phase II Report H. Zhou, M. Pour-Rouholamin 9/29/2015
In the second phase of this project, two major tasks were completed: (1) organizing a national wrong-way driving (WWD) summit and (2) developing guidelines for reducing WWD on freeways. The first national WWD summit was held in Edwardsville, Illinois, on July 18 and 19, 2013. The conference proceedings were published by the Illinois Center for Transportation in 2014. An executive summary on the findings and survey results from the summit are included in this report. Guidelines for reducing WWD on freeways were published in 2014 as another important outcome of Phase II for this project. The guidelines include four chapters: introduction, traffic control devices, geometric designs, and advanced technologies. A 4-hour training course was then developed based on the guidelines. A pilot training was conducted on March 26, 2015, in Springfield, Illinois. The participants’ comments and evaluation results are summarized in this report. The final training materials, comprising instructor’s notes and a student handbook, are submitted with this final report. In addition, another major task was to identify and develop a methodology to evaluate implemented WWD strategies by the Illinois Department of Transportation. The additional 2-year WWD crash data (2012–2013) were collected to conduct a before-and-after study. The preliminary results showed that the number of WWD crashes declined after implementation of the countermeasures. Because most of the countermeasures were implemented in early 2014, additional after-implementation crash data are recommended for a more comprehensive evaluation of different countermeasures.
Show Abstract R27-SP29 FHWA-ICT-15-015 Thermodynamics Between RAP/RAS and Virgin Aggregates During Asphalt Concrete Production--A Literature Review M.I. Hossain, V. Veginati, J. Krukow 9/29/2015
In hot-mix asphalt (HMA) plants, virgin aggregates are heated and dried separately before being mixed with RAP/RAS and virgin asphalt binder. RAP/RAS materials are not heated or dried directly by a burner to avoid burning of aged binder coating on the materials so they are heated and dried indirectly by the hot virgin aggregates. A literature review shows that virgin aggregate temperature has been predicted for drying and heating RAP at batch plants only. In this study, thermodynamics and heat transfer principles are used to predict virgin aggregate temperature for drying and heating RAP/RAS at a drum plant. Among many results, it was shown that virgin aggregates become superheated (more than 1000°F) when both virgin aggregate and RAP moisture content were in the range of 3% to 5% and the material proportions were in the range of 30% to 50%. The size of virgin aggregates and RAP/RAS, the moisture content of virgin aggregates and RAP/RAS, and the mix proportion of virgin aggregates and RAP/RAS were the major contributing parameters in predicting virgin aggregate temperature in the drum plant. The plant’s moisture content data indicate that virgin coarse aggregates hold a lower amount of moisture compared with virgin fine aggregates. However, in comparing same-size virgin aggregates and RAP, RAP contained a higher amount of moisture. The reason might be that the aged binder coating of RAP holds moisture better than virgin aggregates do. Also, RAS contains a higher amount of moisture compared with RAP of the same size.
Show Abstract R27-090 FHWA-ICT-14-009 Proceedings of the 2013 National Wrong-Way Driving Summit H. Zhou, M.Pour Rouholamin, eds. 5/1/2014
The first National Wrong-Way Driving (WWD) Summit was held July 18 and 19, 2013, at the Morris University Center (MUC) of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE). The purpose of this summit, which was sponsored by the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) and Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), was to provide a platform for practitioners and researchers to exchange ideas, evaluate current countermeasures, and develop best practices to reduce WWD crashes and incidents through a 4E’s approach (Engineering, Education, Enforcement, and Emergency Response).
Show Abstract R27-090 FHWA-ICT-14-010 Guidelines for Reducing Wrong-Way Crashes on Freeways H. Zhou, M. Pour Rouholamin 5/1/2014
Each year, hundreds of fatal wrong-way driving (WWD) crashes occur across the United States, and thousands of injuries are reported in traffic crashes caused by wrong-way drivers. Although WWD crashes have been a concern since the advent of access-controlled, divided roadways, the problem persists despite efforts to address it over time. The objective of this book is to provide guidance for implementing traditional and advanced safety countermeasures to achieve a significant reduction in the number of WWD incidents and crashes on freeways.
Show Abstract R27-090 FHWA-ICT-12-010 Investigation of Contributing Factors Regarding Wrong-Way Driving on Freeways H. Zhou, J. Zhao, R. Fries, M.R. Gahrooei, L. Wang, B. Vaughn, K. Bahaaldin, B. Ayyalasomayajula 10/1/2012
In Illinois, there were 217 wrong-way crashes on freeways from 2004 to 2009, resulting in 44 killed and 248 injured. This research project sought to determine the contributing factors to wrong-way crashes on freeways and to develop promising, cost-conscious countermeasures to reduce these driving errors and their related crashes. A thorough literature review was conducted to summarize the best practices on design, safety, and operational issues related to wrong-way driving on freeways by different states in the United States and abroad. Six-year crash data from the Illinois Department of Transportation were then collected for identifying wrong-way crashes. Out of 632 possible wrong-way crashes identified from the crash database, the 217 actual wrong-way crashes were verified by reviewing hard copies of those crash reports. General statistical characteristics of wrong-way crashes were analyzed, and the findings suggested that a large proportion of wrong-way crashes occurred during the weekend from 12 midnight to 5 a.m. Approximately 60% of wrong-way drivers were DUI drivers. Of those, more than 50% were confirmed to be impaired by alcohol, 5% were impaired by drugs, and more than 3% had been drinking. Causal tables, Haddon matrices, and significance tests were used to identify factors that contribute to wrong-way crashes on Illinois freeways. Alcohol impairment, age, gender, physical condition, driver’s experience and knowledge, time of day, interchange type, and urban and rural areas were found to be significant factors. A new method was developed to rank the high-frequency crash locations based on the number of recorded or estimated wrong-way freeway entries. Twelve interchanges were identified for field reviews. Site-specific and general countermeasures were identified for future implementation. Not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-130 FHWA-ICT-15-008 Development of Improved Overlay Thickness Design Alternatives for Local Roads E. Tutumluer and P. Sarker 7/28/2015
In this research study, 20 pavement sections were selected from six counties in Illinois, with varying structural and traffic characteristics. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests were conducted on these road segments to determine and monitor the structural conditions of both the existing and HMA overlaid pavement sections. Then the corresponding required overlay thicknesses were determined using three different methods—the AASHTO 1993 nondestructive testing (NDT) method, the IDOT modified layer coefficients method, and the Asphalt Institute deflection approach—that are currently used by local agencies including municipalities, counties and townships. Inadequacies of the currently available methods to properly account for the pavement structural conditions were highlighted. Accordingly, a new mechanistic-empirical (M-E) overlay design method was developed to adequately assess the structural conditions of existing pavements and subsequently recommend required thickness values from FWD-based critical pavement responses computed and compared with threshold values for the pre-established fatigue and/or rutting damage algorithms. The M-E overlay design method successfully identified structural deficiencies in the original pavement configurations through FWD NDT and subsequently resulted in reliable and cost-effective overlay solutions, as compared with the IDOT modified layer coefficients method.
Show Abstract R27-124 FHWA-ICT-15-013 Evaluation of Aggregate Subgrade Materials Used as Pavement Subgrade/Granular Base H. Kazmee, E. Tutumluer 7/23/2015
With recent focus on sustainable construction practices and the ever-increasing transportation costs and scarcity of natural resources, integration of large-size and marginally acceptable aggregates and recycled materials (e.g., reclaimed asphalt pavement [RAP]) with current construction specifications is becoming imperative. As an incentive, the Illinois Department of Transportation has been using large-size rocks, popularly known as aggregate subgrade. However, adequate scientific knowledge about material performance is largely unknown. To this end, a research study was undertaken at the Illinois Center for Transportation to evaluate the adequacy and field performances of IDOT’s new aggregate subgrade specifications. A state-of-the-art image analysis technique was used to characterize the size and shape as well as the texture and angularity properties of selected aggregate subgrade materials. For field evaluation, 24 combinations of pavements were constructed over subgrade with controlled low immediate bearing value (IBV) or unsoaked California bearing ratio (CBR) strength properties. Construction quality control was achieved through in-place density and modulus measurements on aggregate layers using a nuclear gauge, lightweight deflectometer, and soil stiffness gauges. Periodic rut measurements were carried out on the pavement surface throughout the accelerated loading process using an Accelerated Transportation Loading Assembly (ATLAS). Contributions of the underlying pavement layers to the total rut accumulation were evaluated through innovative applications of ground-penetrating radar (GPR), a lightweight variable-energy penetrometer device, known as the PANDA, and a geo-endoscopy probe. Layer intermixing and material migration at the aggregate subgrade– subgrade interface improved the foundation layer stiffness properties and pavement performance results significantly. RAP-capped construction platforms consistently exhibited a higher magnitude of rutting. Performances of flexible pavement sections were governed by the as-constructed HMA thicknesses, which varied considerably during the paver operation because of RAP subbase sinkage and the weak
Show Abstract R27-125 FHWA-ICT-15-012 Sustainable Aggregates Production: Green Applications for Aggregate By-Products E. Tutumluer, H. Ozer, W. Hou, V. Mwumvaneza 6/29/2015
Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizes—hence, increased amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs are usually less than 1/4 in. (6 mm) in size. This report provides findings of an industry survey conducted among Illinois aggregate producers on the annual production rate, excess QBs generated, and current application areas of QBs. In addition, a detailed laboratory study was conducted to characterize the engineering properties of QB materials produced in the primary, secondary, and tertiary aggregate production stages from four different quarries operating in the State of Illinois. Since unconfined compressive strength for QB materials was low (less than 11 psi), chemical admixture stabilizers such as Portland cement and Class C fly ash were used to improve the strength properties of QB materials. Significant increases in the strength of stabilized QB materials observed may indicate suitability of QBs for sustainable pavement applications. Recommendations are made on potential strategies to utilize excess fines by incorporating QB materials in pavement construction.
Show Abstract R27-160 FHWA-ICT-15-014 Illinois Highway Materials Sustainability Efforts of 2014 D.L. Lippert, S.G. Kang, H. Ozer 8/24/2015
This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by documenting IDOT’s efforts to reduce the carbon footprint and achieve cost savings through the use of recycled materials in asphalt paving projects. Research efforts undertaken and those that will have a future impact on IDOT’s sustainability efforts are highlighted.
Show Abstract R27-160 FHWA-ICT-14-015 Illinois Highway Materials Sustainability Efforts of 2013 D.L. Lippert, H. Ozer, I.L. Al-Qadi, A.K. El-Khatib, R. Yang, T.U. Kang, A.Z. Dahhan, J.W. Vespa, J.S. Trepanier 8/15/2014
This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by documenting IDOT’s efforts to reduce the carbon footprint and achieve cost savings through the use of recycled materials in asphalt paving projects. This report also covers the development, construction, and initial performance after one winter of demonstration projects that used total recycle asphalt (TRA). TRA may consist of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled concrete material (RCM), steel slag, reclaimed asphalt shingles (RAS), and less than 3% new soft liquid asphalt. No newly mined aggregate is used in the mix. The results of Hamburg wheel tracking and Semi-circular bending (SCB) for fracture energy are presented for durability aspects of both rutting and pavement cracking on three demonstration projects that used TRA mix. Crack surveys were performed to establish early performance history of the TRA mixes. Included in this report is an environmental
Show Abstract R27-135 FHWA-ICT-15-011 Enhancements to Highway Construction Scheduling Expert System (Including User Manual) D.K. Slattery, T.K. Slattery 6/1/2015
This research was performed to enhance the software tool (Illinois Construction Scheduling Expert System, ICSES) developed in Phase I of this project (ICT project R27-86) by mining data collected on IDOT construction projects and differentiating production rates based on project type and size, and training for IDOT engineers on effective use of the expert system tool. The researchers obtained Illinois COnstruction Record System (ICORS) data from each district and assembled a statewide database of more than 4,000 projects completed from 2003-2014. Rich production rate data was extracted from the ICORS files by analyzing the resident engineers’ daily diaries and other historical records and processing this data for use in the ICSES software. The results of the data analysis give the scheduler templates of a variety of highway construction projects with the controlling items associated with those projects and the order in which the activities typically occur. The ICSES software was updated based on the results of the analysis of the ICORS data. Templates were modified and/or added in the existing Excel-based database. Production rates currently given in the Construction Daily Production Rate table (Bureau of Design and Environment Manual, Table 66-2.B) were updated based on analyses of data generated by the research. Users of ICSES are given information to assist in development of a schedule and engineers’ estimate of time based on project parameters.
Show Abstract R27-147 FHWA-ICT-15-010 Development of Chloride Reduction Training W.A. Nixon, A. Gerard 4/23/2015
The purpose of this project was to create a training program that could be used for Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) personnel who operated snow plows and spread road salt during winter storms. The training message was built around the three main goals of winter maintenance: safety, mobility, and environmental protection. The concept of winter maintenance operations being a system was introduced early in the training and stressed throughout. Another goal of the project was to develop a method or tool by which the effectiveness of the training could be measured. Achieving that goal requires the ability to compare quantities of salt used by IDOT (or some subset of IDOT, such as a maintenance garage) over winters before and after the training is provided. The method presented herein uses a storm severity index, summed over the whole winter season. This allows for comparison between two winters to be made by use of the index. Thus, as shown in the report, for the Moline maintenance district, the winter of 2012–13 can be compared with the winter of 2013–14. This comparison shows that the cumulative index for the 2012–13 winter was 13.20, while it was 26.88 for the 2013–14 winter. In other words the winter of 2013–14 was significantly worse than the winter that preceded it.
Show Abstract R27-079 FHWA-ICT-15-009 Designing, Producing, and Constructing Fine-Graded Hot Mix Asphalt on Illinois Roadways W.G. Buttlar, C. Na Chiangmai, I.L. Al-Qadi, T. R. Murphy, W.J. Pine 4/16/2015
Fine-graded (F-G) asphalt concrete mixtures are composed of an aggregate structure in which the fine fraction controls the load-carrying capacity of the mix. Other states have reported benefits in using F-G mixtures, including improved compaction, lower segregation, and lower permeability—resulting in longer life. Rutting concerns have been mitigated through the use of manufactured sand. This study investigates the feasibility of using F-G mixtures for IL 19.0 mm (3/4 in) asphalt binder courses in Illinois. A careful laboratory investigation, including mix designs guided by the Bailey Method, was conducted, then followed by extensive laboratory performance testing. Performance tests indicated that the F-G mixtures had equivalent or superior rut and crack resistance to a reference coarse-graded (C-G) control mixture. Limited field trials demonstrated the F-G mixtures were easier to compact, led to higher pay factors, and had significantly lower permeability than traditional C G mixtures, while being similar in cost. Whether designing a coarse- or fine-graded mixture, optimum asphalt content will be the same when using the same materials and targeting the same VMA and voids level, provided asphalt absorption remains constant. Limited full-scale accelerated pavement tests also demonstrated similarity in rutting resistance between the C-G and F-G mixtures investigated. Recommendations for implementation of F-G mixtures are provided, along with a revised draft specification for 19.0 mm mixtures. The revised specification provides upward adjustments to the lower side of the gradation band at the primary control sieve to lessen the likelihood of designing segregation-prone binder mixtures and raises the upper band to permit F-G mixtures to be designed. These principles apply to surface course mixtures as well.
Show Abstract R27-SP27 FHWA-ICT-15-006 Investigation of Relationships between AIMS Shape Properties and VST Friction Values E. Mahmoud, G. Perales 2/27/2015
A thorough analysis was conducted for AIMS shape properties measured for virgin aggregates, aggregates polished in the Micro-Deval (MD) for 105 and 210 minutes, and VST friction samples. Excellent repeatability of AIMS angularity and texture measurements was observed. Investigating the relationships between AIMS-MD angularity and texture, a strong relationship was found between VST friction values and AIMS AMD-105 angularity and a combined angularity and texture of AIMS measurements also for AMD-105. This indicates that VST friction values are a function of both texture and angularity. Furthermore, the strong correlation between AIMS AMD-105 texture and the surface texture of VST friction samples indicated that MD is a viable option for replacing VST as a polishing mechanism and that current VST procedure might not be long enough to achieve terminal texture. Further analysis indicated that AIMS AMD-105 shape properties could potentially replace AMD-210 for selecting and ranking aggregates for friction properties. However, the recommendation is to keep testing at both polishing intervals. Finally, clustering analysis was conducted to obtain threshold for classifying aggregate angularity and texture into acceptable and non-acceptable zones (i.e., defining the criteria for qualifying aggregates for friction purposes). In this study, two types of clustering were used: two-step cluster analysis and the K-means cluster analysis. The final outcome of this analysis was that an aggregate source with texture AMD-105 > 140 and angularity AMD-105 > 1240 is recommended for friction purposes.
Show Abstract R27-143 FHWA-ICT-15-005 Tree Establishment in Response to Hydrology at IDOT Wetland Mitigation Sites J.W. Matthews, G.E. Pociask 2/25/2015
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has compensated for unavoidable impacts to wetlands in transportation project corridors by restoring and creating wetlands throughout Illinois. As part of the IDOT Wetlands Program, monitoring of performance measures is conducted by the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS). The goals of this research were to determine the effect of flood events on the establishment of planted and naturally recruiting trees in IDOT mitigation wetlands and to make specific recommendations for tree planting and the establishment of mitigation performance standards. We compiled and analyzed existing data from INHS and ISGS monitoring reports and conducted additional field surveys to determine long-term planted tree survival and assess natural tree recruitment. Based on our compilation of data from INHS wetland monitoring reports, we determined that the number of planted trees alive at mitigation wetlands by the end of mitigation monitoring was, on average, 57% the number of trees planted originally. We revisited ten older mitigation wetlands in 2014 and recounted surviving planted trees, and found that survival rate continued to decline beyond site monitoring periods. Tree mortality was clearly related to site exposure to flood disturbance during individual years, through the end of site monitoring, and beyond site monitoring periods. Depth and duration of inundation were more important than flood frequency in determining tree survival. Natural colonization greatly exceeded planting in terms of both stem density and basal area. However, natural colonization was not clearly related to site flood exposure. In sites that are exposed to long-duration or deep flooding, planted tree survival is likely to be low regardless of species planted or the degree of on-site management of plantings. We recommend that realistically attainable mitigation performance standards be developed on a site-specific basis, considering the likely hydrologic regime of the site. In some situations, faster-growing species provide tangible environmental benefits. In addition, natural tree colonization can supplement planting, even in sites where planted hard-mast species are unlikely to persist.
Show Abstract R27-138 FHWA-ICT-15-003 Options and Recommendations for a Web Database of Material and Construction Inspection C. Kelly 2/23/2015
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has been using software developed in-house for their materials management and construction project management needs. The primary packages under review MISTIC (Materials Management) and ICORS (Construction Project Management) were developed at a time when there were no suitable commercial offerings. These packages have continued to provide functionality for decades, but due to personnel changes, hardware improvements, and additional software requirements; the packages should be replaced before they fail and create an untenable situation in IDOT. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are commercial packages available that will meet the ongoing needs of IDOT in these two areas.
Show Abstract R27-119 FHWA-ICT-15-004 Real-Time Information Dissemination Requirements for Illinois per New Federal Rule (Phase I) R. Fries, P. Yousefzadehfard, K. Bahaaldin, A. Fadoul, K. Ghale, M. Atiquzzaman, M. Chowdhury, S. Petersen, E. Minge 2/17/2015
Travelers on U.S. freeways could now be better-informed than ever before, because of a new federal legislation. The Final Rule 23 CFR 511 has mandated that after November 8, 2014, states provide real-time traveler data along all limited-access roadways, and that traveler information must also be provided along routes of significance in all metropolitan areas (with populations exceeding one million) two years after that. Furthermore, this law requires information be available 90% of the time, with an 85% rate of accuracy. This study was conducted, with the collaboration from the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), to provide guidance on meeting the new rule effectively and quantifiably.
Show Abstract R27-095 FHWA-ICT-15-002 Field Evaluation of Smart Sensor Vehicle Detectors at Railroad Grade Crossings, Volume 4: Performance in Adverse Weather Conditions J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal 1/27/2015
The performance of a microwave radar system for vehicle detection at a railroad grade crossing with quadrant gates was evaluated in adverse weather conditions: rain (light and torrential), snow (light and heavy), dense fog, and wind. The first part of this report compares the results of the modified system setup in adverse weather conditions with those from good weather conditions (as presented in Volume 3 of this study). Then, the results of a re-modified system setup were compared to the results for the modified system setup in good and adverse weather conditions. The re-modification was in response to increased detection errors in adverse weather conditions. With the modified setup, system performance was sensitive to the adverse weather conditions. In torrential rain, false calls increased to 24.82%–27.08% (e.g., May 28 and June 1) when there was some traffic on the crossing. However, when there was torrential rain but only one vehicle (e.g., May 31) or no traffic flow (e.g., June 10), the radar units generated 15 false calls on each of those 2 days. For all heavy snow datasets combined, missed calls by a single radar unit and by the two radar units working as a combined unit (i.e., systemwide) represented 13.51% and 11.66% of the loop calls, respectively. The most severe snow effects were found during freezing rain/ice. In dense fog, false calls increased to 11.58%, and all false calls were generated when the gates were moving or in the down position. Wind did not affect system performance, and the errors were similar to those in good weather conditions. With the re-modified setup, the frequency of errors in heavy rain and heavy snow conditions was reduced and system performance was similar to the good weather, light rain, and light snow conditions. In heavy rain, false calls in the re-modified setup were reduced to 2.6% compared with 30.5% in the modified setup. This reduction was the result of a significant decrease in the false calls generated without objects in the crossing. The re-modified setup eliminated the systemwide missed calls in heavy snow. The re-modified setup also reduced the false calls to less than 1% in good weather, light rain, and light snow conditions and practically had no missed, stuck-on, or dropped calls. Results indicate that re-modifications improved the performance of detection system.
Show Abstract R27-095 FHWA-ICT-13-028 Field Evaluation of Smart Sensor Vehicle Detectors at Railroad Grade Crossings--Volume 3: Performance in Favorable Weather Conditions J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal 10/1/2013
The performance of a microwave radar system for vehicle detection at a railroad grade crossing in Hinsdale, Illinois, was evaluated through field-testing in favorable (normal, good) weather conditions. The system was installed at a crossing with three tracks and used two radar units aimed at the crossing from opposite quadrants. The performance was assessed in terms of false calls, missed calls, stuck-on calls, and dropped calls, using datasets collected in favorable (good) weather conditions. First, the system performance was assessed using the initial setup. In the initial setup, the most frequent error type was false calls (0.55%), mainly the result of activations caused by pedestrians and bicyclists in the crossing; followed by missed calls caused by one of the radars missing a vehicle (0.07%). These results were shared with the product developer to see whether he wanted to make any modification to the initial setup. In the modified setup, the detection zones and the aim of one of the radars were changed. Then, the system performance was evaluated. Results for the modified setup showed an increased frequency of false calls (0.96%), mostly the result of activations generated by moving gates and also by pedestrians. Missed calls in the modified setup were slightly increased to 0.09%, and they were due to one of the two radar units missing a vehicle. There were no missed calls when the system relied on the two radar units because at least one of the two always detected the vehicles occupying the crossing. The system did not generate any stuck-on or dropped calls in the selected data for both the initial and the modified setup in favorable (good) weather conditions. Additional testing is under way to evaluate the system in adverse weather conditions, including snow-covered roadways, rain, fog, and wind.
Show Abstract R27-095 FHWA-ICT-13-014 Field Evaluation of Smart Sensor Vehicle Detectors at Intersections, Volume 2: Performance Under Adverse Weather Conditions J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, H. Ramezani 4/1/2013
Two microwave-based systems for vehicle detection (by Wavetronix and MS SEDCO) were evaluated at stop bar and advance zones of a signalized intersection under three adverse weather conditions: (1) wind, (2) snow-covered roadway, and (3) rain. Weather effects were very different for the two systems both in terms of the type of condition that could affect performance and in the magnitude of those effects. For Wavetronix, wind had significant effects on the advance zone by increasing false calls to over 50%, but it did not affect the stop bar zones. On the other hand, false calls in snow significantly increased to more than 40% in the stop bar zones and to about 30% in the advance zone. Snow also increased missed and stuck-on calls but in lower proportion than the false calls. Rain also affected the detection at stop bar zones, but all error types were below 8%, and it did not affect the advance zone. For Intersector, weather effects were less pronounced both at the stop bar and advance zones. Snow increased false calls to a range of about 4% to 8% compared to 1.65% to about 4% in normal weather. In addition, rain increased stuck-on calls to a range of 2.7% to 6.35% at the stop bar zones and increased missed calls at advance zones to 3.44%. Wind had no significant effects at stop bar or advance zones. In particular for the rain data, the intensity of the precipitation seemed to be related to the degree of performance degradation. In datasets with higher precipitation per unit of time, higher false calls were observed at Wavetronix stop bar zones, and a higher frequency of missed calls was observed at the Intersector advance zone. Findings from this evaluation can provide valuable information to users and manufacturers of these products regarding expected performance under adverse weather conditions at locations with similar mountings and settings, as well as insight about potential solutions to preventing negative effects in such scenarios.
Show Abstract R27-095 FHWA-ICT-12-016 Field Evaluation of Smart Sensor Vehicle Detectors at Intersections--Volume 1: Normal Weather Conditions J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, H. Ramezani 10/1/2012
Microwave-based vehicle detection products from two manufacturers were selected for field testing and evaluation: Wavetronix and Intersector. The two systems were installed by the manufacturer/distributor at a signalized intersection. Initial evaluation was performed and the results were shared with the companies. They were given an opportunity to change or fine-tune the systemsï¿¿ setup, if they wanted, resulting in a modified setup. Results are presented in this report in terms four types of errors (false, missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls). At the stop bar, at least 94% of detections for Wavetronix and 96% for Intersector were correct. At stop bar zones, the overall occurrence of false calls for Wavetronix ranged from 0.56% to 1.62%. Missed calls were low for Zones 1 and 2 (0.13% and 0.43%) but significantly higher in Zone 3 (6.05%). Also, stuck-on calls were only observed in Zone 3 (0.58%), and a few dropped calls were found almost exclusively in Zone 3 (0.16%). For Intersector, false calls ranged from 1.4% to 3.56% and missed calls ranged between 0.05% and 0.27%. Stuck-on calls ranged from 0.92% for 2.83% and dropped calls were very low (0% and 0.19%). At the advance zones, at least 91% of detections for Wavetronix and 99% for Intersector were correct. For the advance zone, a direct comparison of the two systems was not performed because Wavetronix covered all three lanes combined, but Intersector had one zone covering only the center lane. Wavetronix did not have any stuck-on or dropped calls, missed calls were 1.07%, and false calls were 8.29% for the summer and fall datasets combined. Intersector had no dropped calls, 0.04% stuck-on calls (only one call), 0.8% missed calls, and 0.7% false calls. Additional testing is under way to evaluate the performance of the two systems under inclement weather conditions
Show Abstract R27-123 FHWA-ICT-15-001 LED Street Lighting Evaluation--Phase II: LED Specification and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis R.F. Benekohal, C. Gregerson, J. Medina 1/5/2015
Phase II of this study focused on developing a draft specification for LED luminaires to be used by IDOT and a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool for solid state lighting technologies. The team also researched the latest developments related to dirt depreciation factors for LED luminaires and other general developments on solid state lighting. A final draft specification was developed that included best practices from states and cities that already had their own specification, as well as feedback from several state DOTs staff, a few experts in roadway lighting, and six LED luminaire manufacturers. This process is recommended for the development of future specifications. A spreadsheet to conduct LCCA based on net present value was also developed. The spreadsheet contains unit costs of typical items used in roadway lighting projects, and it is completely customizable by the user. The life-cycle cost of HPS, LED, plasma, and induction lighting designs can be compared side by side in the output table. There are significant trade-offs between larger initial investments for LED and lower maintenance/light consumption costs over the life of the project. Presently, LED lighting does not offer significant cost advantages over other technologies used in highway lighting in most of the four scenarios analyzed. However, assuming re-lamping and re-ballasting cycles of 4 years for HPS, and a cost of $845 per LED luminaire (half of current cost reported by IDOT), HPS and LED produced the most economical lighting solutions with the exception of the conventional interchange project in which LED was 8.3% more expensive than HPS. Ongoing dirt depreciation research and trends in the lighting industry, such as adaptive lighting, should be monitored to take advantage of developments and to ensure that the most qualified products are specified and purchased. In addition to LCCA, other factors may also be considered in deciding which type of luminaires to use.
Show Abstract R27-131 FHWA-ICT-14-022 Leveraging Traffic and Surveillance Video Cameras for Urban Traffic Jakob Eriksson 12/1/2014
The objective of this project was to investigate the use of existing video resources, such as traffic cameras, police cameras, red light cameras, and security cameras for the long-term, real-time collection of traffic statistics. An additional objective was to gather similar statistics for pedestrians and bicyclists. Throughout the course of the project, we investigated several methods for tracking vehicles under challenging conditions. The initial plan called for tracking based on optical flow. However, it was found that current optical flow–estimating algorithms are not well suited to low-quality video—hence, developing optical flow methods for low-quality video has been one aspect of this project. The method eventually used combines basic optical flow tracking with a learning detector for each tracked object—that is, the object is tracked both by its apparent movement and by its appearance should it temporarily disappear from or be obscured in the frame. We have produced a prototype software that allows the user to specify the vehicle trajectories of interest by drawing their shapes superimposed on a video frame. The software then tracks each vehicle as it travels through the frame, matches the vehicle’s movements to the most closely matching trajectory, and increases the vehicle count for that trajectory. In terms of pedestrian and bicycle counting, the system is capable of tracking these “objects” as well, though at present it is not capable of distinguishing between the three classes automatically. Continuing research by the principal investigator under a different grant will establish this capability as well.
Show Abstract R27-SP25 FHWA-ICT-14-021 Data Collection and Analysis for Local Roadway Safety Assessment Y. Mao, Y. Ouyang 2/26/2015
The project “Data Analysis for Local Roadway Assessment” conducted systematic road-safety assessment and identified major risks that can be eliminated or reduced by practical road-improvement measures. Specifically, the primary task of this project was to collect and code detailed data on key roadway and traffic control characteristics for 100-meter roadway segments from Internet-based photos on Google Street View®. From November 1, 2013, to April 30, 2014, data on more than 50 key safety-related design characteristics were carefully collected and documented for 1,566 100-meter road segments in Boone County, 3,941 in Champaign County, and 2,545 in Vermilion County. Data were collected at an average rate of 4.16 kilometers per hour. This report summarizes the main activities (training, data coding, and communication), management and control (internal and external supervision), and key results of this project.
Show Abstract R27-126 FHWA-ICT-14-020 Temporary Stabilization Specification Improvements Mark Grinter, Peter Minchin, Irene Weber, Susan Morgan, William Retzlaff 9/24/2014
Seed variety performance data for establishing temporary vegetative cover was collected at four Illinois locations at four planting seasons. Current Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) standard specifications call for a mixture of perennial rye and spring oats for temporary vegetative cover, with no variation for time of year or site conditions. That mixture has demonstrated some success; however, for every location and time of year, this study identified at least one seed variety that demonstrated performance superior to the specified mix. Temporary seeding specifications currently employed by nearby states were reviewed and compared with Illinois’ specifications. In addition to seed variety, the effectiveness of seed bed preparation using a power rake and the effectiveness of straw-mat and loose wheat-straw mulching methods were investigated. Based on the observed results, the research team has proposed modifying temporary seeding recommendations to reflect seeding date and site location. Adoption of these research-based temporary seeding specifications will likely result in improved temporary vegetative cover establishment, reduced erosion, and improved water quality.
Show Abstract R27-122 FHWA-ICT-14-019 Improvement of Driven Pile Installation and Design in Illinois: Phase 2 Jim Long, Andrew Anderson 9/2/2014
A dynamic load test program consisting of 38 sites and 111 piles with restrikes was conducted throughout Illinois to improve the Illinois Department of Transportation design of driven piling. Pile types included steel H-piles and closed-ended pipe (shell) piles. Piles were driven into all soil types including clay, silt, sand, shale, and limestone. Predictive methods for estimating pile capacity were investigated and include the K-IDOT (static) method, WSDOT (dynamic formula), WEAP, PDA, and CAPWAP. Pile capacities were taken as the capacity estimated using CAPWAP for beginning of restrike conditions. Piles were monitored during initial driving. Piles were re-driven several days later to assess the amount of setup to assess the effect of time, pile type and soil type. Restrikes were conducted typically between 3 -15 days after initial driving. Modifying WSDOT to include effects of setup explicitly with specific equations (Skov and Denver, 1988) for time dependent setup was not any more precise than the original WSDOT formula with adjustments for pile type. Accordingly recommendations are made for adjusting WSDOT estimates based on whether the pile is an H-pile or a shell pile. Adjustments were made to the simplified stress formula (SSF) to refine predictions of stresses in driven H- and Shell piles driven with diesel hammers. Resistance factors were determined using the First Order Second Moment method for the static method (K-IDOT) and the dynamic formula (WSDOT). Pile types included H-piles and shell piles for both end of driving conditions and for beginning of restrike. Resistance factors were also determined for WEAP and PDA. These resistance factors were determined using the CAPWAP (BOR) capacity as the static capacity for the pile, although it is preferable that the resistance factors be based on static load test. Accordingly, adjustments were made to the resistance factors accounting for the average agreement between capacity determined by CAPWAP(BOR) and capacity determined with a static load test.
Show Abstract ICT-14-015 ICT-14-015 Concrete with Steel Furnace Slag and Fractionated Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Alexander S. Brand, Jeffery R. Roesler 9/12/2014
Steel furnace slag (SFS) is an industrial by-product material that can contain free calcium oxide (CaO) and free magnesium oxide (MgO), both of which can cause significant expansion when hydrated. SFS aggregates are therefore not commonly used in concrete, although SFS aggregates have been used as a high quality frictional aggregate for hot-mix asphalt (HMA) surface courses. The resultant fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement (FRAP) when the HMA with SFS is removed has also seen little usage. This study aims to continue the previous work by the authors that indicated that up to 50% dolomite FRAP can be used in concrete as a replacement of coarse aggregate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of SFS FRAP at 20% and 50% replacements of the coarse aggregate in concrete. In addition, the chemical, mineralogical, physical, and expansive properties of three SFS FRAP sources were investigated along with investigations of three virgin SFS sources for comparison. The chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the SFS FRAP and virgin SFS sources were similar to values presented in the literature. The estimated total free CaO content of the virgin SFS sources ranged from low (<0.1%) to high (3.4%), while the free CaO content of the SFS FRAP sources was estimated to be 1.0% to 1.5%. The free MgO content of the virgin SFS sources ranged from 0.2% to 2.2%. Autoclave expansion tests correlated well for the virgin SFS sources with regard to the free CaO content (i.e., high free CaO content resulted in high expansion), while the SFS FRAP with asphalt binder removed did expand, but not necessarily proportionally to the free CaO content. Autoclave expansion tests of the SFS FRAP with the asphalt binder resulted in contraction rather than expansion. The results validated the findings from other studies that have shown that SFS FRAP will not significantly expand because of the asphalt coating. Concrete tests revealed that the strength, modulus, shrinkage, and fracture properties were similar between concretes with SFS FRAP and with dolomite FRAP. The modulus of elasticity was slightly higher for concrete with SFS FRAP compared with dolomite FRAP, possibly because of the presence of the stiffer SFS aggregate. The fracture properties were statistically similar for concrete with and without SFS FRAP aggregates. The freeze/thaw durability was reduced with higher SFS FRAP contents, possibly because of the asphalt coating on the FRAP rather than the SFS in the FRAP, because the mixes with 100% virgin SFS exhibited superior freeze/thaw durability. Based on these findings, it is evident that SFS FRAP can retain free CaO and free MgO contents, despite years in service in a pavement layer and/or years being weathered in a stockpile. The presence of the asphalt coating hinders, but may not necessarily prevent, the hydration of the free CaO and free MgO in the SFS. Therefore, it is recommended that the SFS FRAP be tested for free CaO, free MgO, and asphalt contents and autoclave expansion potential prior to being utilized in a structural concrete layer. Immediate usage of SFS FRAP may not be detrimental for non-structural applications, such as temporary roads or shoulders. To ensure that future SFS FRAP can be used in concrete pavements, the SFS that is presently used in HMA should be weathered and have low free CaO contents and low expansion potential.
Show Abstract R27-061 FHWA-ICT-14-018 Structural Performance of Ultra-Thin Whitetopping on Illinois Roadways and Parking Lots Daniel King, Jeffery R. Roesler 8/29/2014
A performance evaluation of ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW) pavements in Illinois was undertaken in 2012–2014 to evaluate current design procedures and to determine design life criteria for future projects. The two main components of this evaluation were (1) visual distress surveys of 20 existing UTW projects across the state to document and quantify distresses and (2) falling weight deflectometer (FWD) testing of eight of these UTW projects to evaluate structural performance. The findings of the surveys are detailed in this report. Deflection data collected during FWD testing were used to directly calculate load transfer efficiency and assess joint performance, but there was no existing method to assess the in situ structural properties of UTW pavements. To better characterize structural performance, a backcalculation procedure for UTW pavements was derived and applied to the deflection data obtained from FWD testing. The backcalculated effective concrete thickness quantifies the load carrying capacity of the UTW pavement, variation of the structural capacity as a function of distance along the roadway, and potentially the condition of the concrete–asphalt bond interface and the underlying asphalt concrete layer. The findings of the visual distress surveys and the FWD data analysis largely agreed with each other and were studied to help provide a greater understanding of factors that affect UTW performance. From this analysis, a number of conclusions and recommendations were made regarding UTW pavement design and construction.
Show Abstract R27-118 FHWA-ICT-14-017 Development of a Highway Incident Management Operational and Training Guide: Phase II R. Fries, H. Zhou, M. Williamson, Y. Yiu, Y. Qu, P. Gu 8/5/2014
The overall goal of both phases of this project was to reduce responder fatalities and injuries, as well as to prevent secondary crashes, especially those involving incident responders. The phases of this project worked toward this goal by creating training materials to help incident responders work more safely and effectively. To address the need for promptly training all traffic incident responders in the state of Illinois, Phase II of this project created online modules to supplement the in-class training developed in Phase I. Based on the recommendations of the Technical Review Panel, responder feedback, and suggestions from the Federal Highway Administration, we identified material that could be presented online as a prerequisite to the classroom-based training. Additionally, this project modified the existing in-class training to obtain endorsement by the Federal Highway Administration as equivalent to their national program. The researchers created 11 online training modules, each lasting between 15 and 30 minutes, to allow responders to view a whole module in one sitting. The researchers also created an online training video game and an in-class trivia game. The video game allows responders to refine their traffic control and vehicle-positioning skills. The trivia game helps reinforce knowledge gained during the in-class training. Together, the online and in-class training materials created throughout both phases of this research project can provide education to those responding to traffic incidents in Illinois. It is expected that as more responders completing this training program, their incident-scene safety will also improve.
Show Abstract R27-SP23 FHWA-ICT-14-016 Illinois Drainage Law Related to Highways and Adjacent Landowners A.R. Schmidt, K. Wang, R. William 9/3/2014
The purpose of this document is to inform landowners, highway authorities, and other interested par-ties about general legal principles related to drainage and drainage improvements. This may allow them to recognize situations where their legal rights have been compromised or where their actions may jeopardize the legal rights of others. The scope of this document is generally limited to Illinois com¬mon and statutory drainage law. Some federal laws are discussed where they have a significant impact on drainage issues in Illinois. Likewise, a small number of case precedents from outside of Illinois are discussed where they may have an impact on drainage issues in Illinois. The scope of this document also is generally limited to drainage topics that are related in some manner to highway drain¬age, those that may impact highway drainage or design, or that fall under the regulatory umbrella of the Illinois Department of Transportation
Show Abstract R27-132 FHWA-ICT-14-013 Incorporating NEPA into IDOT and MPO Planning Processes N. El-Gohary, L. Liu, K. El-Rayes, X. Lv 8/5/2014
This report summarizes the tasks and findings of the ICT Project R27-132 Incorporating National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into IDOT and Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) planning processes, which is aimed at assisting IDOT in defining guidelines on how to integrate NEPA into the current IDOT and MPO planning processes for large-scale highway projects. The objectives of the project are to (1) provide a comprehensive review of literature of practices integrating NEPA into transportation planning processes in other states; (2) gather feedback from inter- and intra-departmental staff involved in the IDOT planning process, the MPO planning process, and the NEPA process to evaluate the existing practices of integrating NEPA into transportation planning processes for large highway projects; (3) evaluate the impact of these practices on the project development process; (4) identify (based on 1, 2, and 3 above) the key elements/practices that are needed to successfully integrate NEPA into IDOT and MPO planning processes for large-scale highway projects; (5) develop a Guidance Document on how to integrate NEPA into IDOT and MPO planning processes for large-scale highway projects; and provide recommendations on how to evaluate the integrated process. The implementation of this Guidance Document by MPOs would be voluntary. To achieve these objectives, the research team conducted seven main tasks: (1) literature review; (2) collecting project data for analysis as case studies; (3) conducting interviews for evaluating potential integration practices; (4) analyzing the results of the literature review, case studies, and expert interviews; (5) developing the proposed Integrated IDOT-MPO-NEPA Planning Process; (6) conducting interviews for evaluating the proposed integrated process; and (7) developing the Guidance Document.
Show Abstract R27-129 FHWA-ICT-14-014 Implementation of AIMS in Measuring Aggregate Resistance to Polishing, Abrasion, and Breakage E. Mahmoud, E. Ortiz 5/1/2014
The feasibility of using the Micro-Deval apparatus along with the second-generation Aggregate Imaging System (AIMS) to develop a procedure for measuring aggregate polishing resistance, and to measure aggregate shape properties was investigated. Eleven aggregate sources from the state of Illinois and neighboring states were selected to develop an aggregate polishing experimental procedure using AIMS and Micro-Deval. AIMS was used to measure aggregate shape properties with a special focus on aggregate angularity and surface texture, while Micro-Deval provided the needed polishing/degradation. Mathematical, statistical, and rate of texture loss analysis indicated that all aggregate sources reached terminal texture at 210 minutes or less. Aggregate angularity followed the same trend, and terminal angularity was achieved at 210 minutes or less. As the polishing procedure was finalized, aggregate shape properties were tested for 77 aggregate sources. Shape properties were measured before polishing and after polishing in Micro-Deval at 105 and 210 minutes, and a database was developed using Microsoft Excel. The research team also studied the number of aggregate particles that must be scanned in AIMS. Random sub-sampling and asymptotic analyses were conducted and it was concluded that 120 particles were required. This finding was further evaluated by manual sampling of 120 aggregate particles. The manual sampling proved that 120 particles were enough for AIMS angularity and texture measurements.
Show Abstract R27-060 FHWA-ICT-14-012 Mechanistic-Empirical Design, Implementation, and Monitoring for Flexible Pavements: A Project Summary M.R. Thompson, I. Al-Qadi 5/1/2014
This document is a summary of tasks performed for Project ICT-R27-060. Mechanistic-empirical (M-E)-based flexible pavement design concepts and procedures were developed in previous Illinois Cooperative Highway Research Program projects (IHR-510, IHR-524, and ICT- R28) and have been implemented by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT). IDOT continues to support a variety of M-E flexible pavement analysis, design, implementation, and monitoring activities. The objective of Project ICT-R27-060 was for University of Illinois staff to continue to provide technical support and cooperate with IDOT in these activities. The cost savings (and probably reduced user delay time) from such designs will benefit IDOT, local roads agencies, and the traveling public.
Show Abstract R27-104 FHWA-ICT-14-011 Native Vegetation Establishment for IDOT Erosion Control Best Management Practices R. Busby 5/1/2014
The objective of this project was to develop native roadside vegetation best management practices for the Illinois Department of Transportation. A review of current practices was undertaken, along with a review of those of other state departments of transportation that routinely use native vegetation for roadsides. Additionally, literature was reviewed for site preparation and desirable qualities, seed and species selection and quality control, application of seed, and management of vegetation. To better understand current practices, we performed a study to assess the performance of existing native seed mixes and practices along Illinois roadsides. Multiple sites were identified where native seed mixes were applied to roadsides. Vegetation sampling was performed to identify which species were present and in what quantities, and was compared to the seed mixes that were applied, to determine which species were successful. Based on the literature review and study results, numerous recommendations for native roadside vegetation best management practices were made.
Show Abstract R27-SP22 FHWA-ICT-14-007 Analysis of 24-Hour versus 48-Hour Traffic Counts for HPMS Sampling J.P. Hall, C.-H. Sung, W. Morgan 4/1/2014
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) count cycle and duration requirement for a 48-hour minimum counting cycle. IDOT proposes to count these routes twice in a 5-year cycle. IDOT’s concern is that the collection of 24-hour counts, as opposed to 48-hour counts, would enable more efficient use of agency resources, yet still maintain the statistical integrity of the annual average daily traffic (AADT) estimation process for HPMS reporting. IDOT had conducted research in the 1980s comparing the two count durations and has been following the conclusions from that study in conducting 24-hour counts. IDOT had been granted an FHWA waiver for the 24-hour counts on state routes since 1992. Because traffic patterns have changed over the years, IDOT wanted to review the relative differences between the two count durations. The objective of this study was to perform a statistical analysis on IDOT’s automated traffic recorder (ATR) continuous-count traffic data, collected from 103 statewide ATR locations, to compare the relative differences between 24-hour count periods and 48-hour count periods that are factored to compute AADT. Statistical analyses were performed for statewide ATR data across various roadway functional classification categories and also split by District 1 and downstate (Districts 2–9). In general, the analyses found that, with the application of appropriate daily traffic-count adjustment factors, the 24-hour counts were statistically comparable to 48-hour traffic counts.
Show Abstract R27-SP24 FHWA-ICT-14-008 Traffic Turk Evaluation S. Gowrishankar, D.B. Work 4/1/2014
This report summarizes a project undertaken by the University of Illinois on behalf of the Illinois Department of Transportation to evaluate a smartphone application called TrafficTurk for traffic safety and traffic monitoring applications. TrafficTurk is a smartphone-based turning movement counter that was developed at the University of Illinois to allow large-scale traffic data collection during large events. TrafficTurk data can be used for real-time decision-making or to assist in future event traffic management plans. The application was evaluated on the 2013 Farm Progress Show, which is the largest outdoor farm show in the United States and is held in Decatur every two years. Apart from the large amount of delay caused by the traffic congestion during this time, there are also specific safety concerns that have been raised by the Macon County Highway Department. In particular, vehicles tend to queue on I-72 just upstream of exit ramp at IL 48. Because I-72 is a high-speed roadway, stopped vehicles are susceptible to high-speed rear-end collisions. The collected traffic data was specifically used to analyze the arrival rates of traffic at each of the counting locations and the possibility of re-routing traffic from the eastern, northern, and western approaches to the show. The application also collected information on the data latency and energy efficiency of the application in order to provide insights on the feasibility, scalability, and scope of future deployments. The analysis of data focused on estimating the traffic density across the road network surrounding the show. An algorithm was developed to quantify traffic congestion on each road segment, which was then used to analyze traffic re-routing.
Show Abstract R27-066 FHWA-ICT-14-006 Effectiveness of Innovative Speed-Enforcement Techniques in Illinois A. Talebpour, H.S. Mahmassani 3/1/2014
The effects of various police patrolling methods on the average speed and crash rate were studied in this report. The number of speeding citations under various enforcement strategies was also investigated. Two surveys were designed and conducted for this purpose, a pilot and a statewide study. The results show that speed enforcement had a statistically significant effect on reducing the average speed, which is more evident during the morning peak period. The average-speed analysis indicates the existence of time halo, as drivers maintain lower speeds for some period after enforcement stops. The minimum length of time halo was found to be at least 2 weeks. A methodology for the optimal allocation of enforcement resources is presented, along with recommendations for strategy selection and deployment.
Show Abstract R27-112 FHWA-ICT-14-005 Effect of Portland Cement (Current ASTM C150/AASHTO M85) with Limestone and Process Addition (ASTM C4356/AASHTO M327) on the Performance of Concrete for Pavement and Bridge Decks M.A. Issa 3/1/2014
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) is making several changes to concrete mix designs, using revisions to cement specification ASTM C150/AASHTO M85 and ASTM C465/AASHTO M327. These proposed revisions will enable the use of more sustainable materials for concrete pavements, overlays, and bridge decks. Accordingly, a study was conducted by the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) to test the performance of concrete mixes batched with cement comprising less (conventional) and more (modified) than 5% by weight of limestone and inorganic processing additions (IPA) specified in ASTM C465/AASHTO M327, and/or insoluble residue (IR) with quantity above the specified limit by ASTM C150. Twenty-four concrete mixes with different cementitious combinations and aggregates were developed for this study. Each cement source was batched in a concrete mixture by replacing 30% of the total cement content with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), fly ash, or slag. Also, each cementitious combination was batched with fine aggregates (either natural or combined sand) and coarse aggregate (crushed limestone). The study included measuring fresh properties such as the slump, air content, unit weight, and setting time. The hardened properties included measuring the strength and durability for each concrete mix combination. The strength results were measured in terms of compressive and flexural strength, and the durability results were measured in terms of rapid chloride penetration resistance (coulombs), water permeability (DIN 1048), chloride ion penetration, and freeze/thaw tests of the concrete mixes. The study found similar performance in terms of strength and durability of concrete between the conventional and modified cements and demonstrated their performance with SCMs replacements and fine aggregate types.
Show Abstract R27-078 FHWA-ICT-14-004 Effects of Various Asphalt Binder Additives/Modifiers on Moisture-Susceptible Asphaltic Mixtures I.L. Al-Qadi, I.M. Abuawad, H. Dhasmana, A.R. Coenen, J.S. Trepanier 1/1/2014
Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as the loss of strength and stability caused by the active presence of
Show Abstract R27-098 FHWA-ICT-14-003 State of Practice for Concrete Cylinder Match Curing and Effect of Test Cylinder Size J.S. Popovics, S. Ham, S. Garrett 1/1/2014
The prestressed concrete element industry is interested in exploring the application of different types of match-curing technologies and in using 4 x 8-in. (100 x 200-mm) cylinders to measure concrete compressive strength instead of the standard 6 x 12-in. (150 x 300-mm) cylinders. Application of this new technology creates potential for cost savings to the producer and the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) as improved knowledge of concrete strength development allows more efficient and accurate stress release and form removal times, normally within 24 hours after casting. The technology associated with match-curing cylinders is somewhat new, and little information is available on the use of temperature-controlled chambers for match curing. This study explores the effects of match-curing performance specifically taking into consideration the insulated jacket mold and air chamber technologies, as well as the effect of cylinder size. This research effort consists of five objectives: (1) review of the literature, current industry practice, and available technology; (2) purchase, assembly, and verification of the effectiveness of match-curing technology; (3) study of the effect of system temperature control on match-cured (water bath) strength results; (4) study of the utility of using match-curing technologies (insulated jacket mold and air chamber) to estimate 1-day, in-place compressive strength; and (5) study of the effect of cylinder size on match-cure strength results.
Show Abstract R27-106 FHWA-ICT-14-002 Formability of New High Performance A710 Grade 50 Structural Steel S. Vaynman, M.E. Fine, C. Hahin 1/1/2014
This project compared the formability of modified ASTM A710 Grade B50 ksi yield strength steel, jointly developed by Northwestern University and the Illinois Department of Transportation, with ASTM A606 Type 4 weathering steel used in Illinois and many other states for sign and signal structures, light poles, and other highway structures. ASTM E290 Type 1 free-bend 180° guided-bend test was used to evaluate formability, with side clearances as per ASTM E190. Bend and tensile specimens were cut in longitudinal and transverse directions from plates and sheets of numerous thicknesses (from 0.38" down to 0.10" thick). Mandrels of three diameters (0.25", 0.313", and 0.375") were used, each having a rounded nose with radius of bend equal to ½ of the mandrel diameter. All specimens of A710 and A606 steels of all thicknesses passed the guided-bend tests. No cracks, side tears, or fractures were observed. Tensile tests showed excellent ductility in both longitudinal and transverse rolling directions, making the modified ASTM A710 steel very suitable for use in sign and signal structures, light poles, and highway structures, along with structural tubing and other applications requiring weathering steel sheets and plates.
Show Abstract R27-109 FHWA-ICT-14-001 Effect of Flaggers and Spotters in Directing Work Zone Traffic for Illinois Expressways and Freeways K. El-Rayes, L. Liu, N. El-Gohary, A. Abdelmohsen 1/1/2014
This research project focused on assessing the effectiveness and essential role of flaggers and spotters in directing traffic for expressway and freeway work zones in Illinois with a posted speed limit greater than 40 mph. The objectives of this project were to (1) conduct a comprehensive literature review to study the latest standards and research on the use of flaggers and spotters to direct work zone traffic on expressways and freeways; (2) perform site visits and field studies to evaluate flagger practices currently used in work zones in Illinois; (3) collect and fuse the latest data on work zone crashes in Illinois during a 14-year period from 1996 to 2009 from all available sources; (4) analyze the gathered data to study the frequency and severity of traffic-related work zone crashes in Illinois highways, and investigate the probable causes and contributing factors of these work zone crashes; (5) investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of work zone safety measures that can be used to supplement or replace the use of flaggers and/or spotters, such as intrusion alarm systems, portable changeable message signs, and portable speed monitoring displays; (6) conduct an online survey of resident engineers and construction personnel in the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and other state DOTs to gather their feedback on the essential roles and effectiveness of flaggers and spotters in directing work zone traffic for expressways and freeways; (7) identify the effectiveness and risks of using spotters and/or flaggers in work zones with a posted speed limit greater than 40 mph on Illinois expressways and freeways, and identify effective work zone safety measures that can be used to supplement or replace flaggers in these works zones; and (8) develop recommendations on the use of flaggers, spotters, and other safety measures in work zones with a posted speed limit greater than 40 mph on Illinois expressways and freeways. These recommendations can be used by IDOT to update and/or expand related IDOT policies, specifications, and standards in order to improve work zone safety and mobility.
Show Abstract R27-077 FHWA-ICT-13-033 Evaluating Pavement Markings on Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) and Various Asphalt Surfaces (includes IDOT Pavement Marking Guide) C.E. Dwyer, W.R. Vavrik, R.L. Becker 12/1/2013
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) uses a variety of different pavement marking systems and has experienced a wide range of pavement marking performance. In an effort to maximize marking performance and to optimize marking selection, IDOT initiated a research project to evaluate the performance of all currently approved marking types to develop a pavement marking selection guide based on performance results. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of pavement markings on both portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements over a period of four years. Field investigations were conducted to gather data on the durability and visibility of markings and the compatibility between markings and pavement materials. From the results of the study and a life-cycle cost analysis, Applied Research Associates (ARA) developed a pavement marking selection guide. Because the successful performance of a marking depends largely on controlling many variables during the installation of the marking, this guide includes pavement marking installation inspection methods for use by IDOT inspectors.
Show Abstract R27-108 FHWA-ICT-13-032 Improving the Effectiveness of Nighttime Temporary Traffic Control Warning Devices, Volume 2: Evaluation of Nighttime Mobile Warning Lights D.A. Steele, J. Marcon Zabecki, L. Zimmerman 11/1/2013
Vehicle-mounted warning lights for nighttime mobile highway operations provide critical protection to workers and the driving public. Alerting the traveling public of the approaching work activity and providing guidance is vital to maintaining safety and mobility. Previous research conducted for IDOT on mobile lane closures (Steele and Vavrik 2009) identified driver confusion as a concern to the safety of nighttime highway operations. Users are subject to warning lights from multiple agencies with varying characteristics and configurations, but we know little about driver comprehension of these signals and their influence on driver behavior. Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) studied the effectiveness of warning lights on nighttime highway operations, including mobile lane closures, incident responses, and police activities, by reviewing pertinent literature, performing observational and experimental field studies, and conducting driver surveys and focus groups of driver perceptions and behavior in response to nighttime mobile operations. We used a cognitive model of driver mental processes to analyze this information and better understand the interaction between warning lights and driver perception and behavior, and to identify and evaluate potential improvements to current practice. The research showed that drivers view current vehicle-mounted warning lights as highly visible, attention-getting, and effective at conveying the message caution/alert. However, intense lights can cause discomfort glare and multiple light sets on individual vehicles, or multiple vehicles at a location, can be distracting, annoying, or anxiety-inducing. Complex visual scenes can confuse drivers and take longer to process cognitively, leading to slower reaction times. Often, information provided by flashing arrows, signs, and changeable message signs can be interfered with by other warning lights on the same vehicle. Suggestions for improvement from the focus groups centered primarily on reducing the number of flashing lights, or synchronizing their flashing, on individual vehicles, reducing the intensity of specific lights, sequential flashing of arrows between multiple trucks in a convoy, and incorporating directional motion in light bars. Researchers were not able to test some of the ideas due to limitations of current device technology; however, field experiments on several suggested concepts showed the potential to improve driver perception, comprehension, and behavior by modifying the number, intensity, and synchronization of lights on individual vehicles, as well as between vehicles.
Show Abstract R27-108 FHWA-ICT-13-029 Improving the Effectiveness of Nighttime Temporary Traffic Control Warning Devices, Volume 1: Evaluation of Lights on Nighttime Work Zone Channelization Devices D.A. Steele, J.L. Marcon, L. Zimmerman 10/1/2013
Currently, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) is one of the few state transportation agencies that require warning lights on nighttime work zone channelization devices, such as drums and barricades. The intent of the steady-burn, amber warning lights is to increase visibility of the channelization devices, providing guidance to motorists and preventing intrusions into the closed lane. However, their additional benefit beyond that provided by the high-reflectivity materials used on the channelization devices themselves has not been evaluated, including taking into consideration their initial, maintenance, and replacement costs; and the environmental and economic issues of routine battery replacement. Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) studied the effectiveness of warning lights on nighttime channelization devices by reviewing pertinent literature, experimental studies of nighttime work zones with and without lights on drums, driver surveys, and focus groups of driver perceptions and behavior in work zones using traffic drums. We applied a cognitive model of driver mental processes to this information to determine the influence of drum warning lights, if any, on driver perception and response. The research showed that, when unprompted, most drivers did not perceive a difference or respond any differently in nighttime work zones using lights on drums than in those without lights. However, when asked to make direct comparisons between work zones with and without lights on drums, there was a slight preference for lights on drums due to the perceived increase in nighttime lighting they provide. Nighttime work zones, and work zones in general, are visually cluttered environments; and the presence (or absence) of lights on drums was not significant enough to attract the drivers’ attention, given competing visual cues such as work zone traffic control devices, other vehicles, and activities in the work space. In addition, the reflective prismatic sheeting on drums in Illinois provides sufficient visibility without warning lights.
Show Abstract R27-117 FHWA-ICT-13-031 2012 National State Safety Engineers and Traffic Engineers Peer-to-Peer Workshop Y. Ouyang 11/1/2013
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the 2012 National State Safety Engineers and Traffic Engineers Peer-to-Peer Workshop on November 14 and 15, 2012, at the Hyatt Regency Woodfield hotel in Schaumburg, Illinois. The peer-exchange workshop was attended by representatives of highway safety engineers and traffic engineers from 33 states, and the discussion focus was the implementation of a variety of safety engineering and traffic operations countermeasures and initiatives, in addition to complying with new federal rules. The workshop covered a wide range of topics, including the history of mobility and safety; the national scene and perspective; linking safety engineering and traffic engineering efforts; organizational structures of state agencies and the interrelationships between traffic and safety engineering procedures; managing performance (operations and safety), and systematic safety and operations. This report summarizes the attendee statistics, the conference program, the main activities (including 17 presentation and discussion sessions), and feedback provided on attendee surveys. The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the 2012 National State Safety Engineers and Traffic Engineers Peer-to-Peer Workshop on November 14 and 15, 2012, at the Hyatt Regency Woodfield hotel in Schaumburg, Illinois. The peer-exchange workshop was attended by representatives of highway safety engineers and traffic engineers from 33 states, and the discussion focus was the implementation of a variety of safety engineering and traffic operations countermeasures and initiatives, in addition to complying with new federal rules. The workshop covered a wide range of topics, including the history of mobility and safety; the national scene and perspective; linking safety engineering and traffic engineering efforts; organizational structures of state agencies and the interrelationships between traffic and safety engineering procedures; managing performance (operations and safety), and systematic safety and operations. This report summarizes the attendee statistics, the conference program, the main activities (including 17 presentation and discussion sessions), and feedback provided on attendee surveys.
Show Abstract R27-105 FHWA-ICT-13-025 Ultimate Pier and Contraction Scour Prediction in Cohesive Soils at Selected Bridges in Illinois T.D. Straub, T.M. Over, M.M. Domanski 9/1/2013
The Scour Rate In COhesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method includes an ultimate scour prediction that is the equilibrium maximum pier and contraction scour of cohesive soils over time. The purpose of this report is to present the results of testing the ultimate pier and contraction scour methods for cohesive soils on 30 bridge sites in Illinois. Comparison of the ultimate cohesive and non-cohesive methods, along with the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) cohesive soil reduction-factor method and measured scour are presented. Also, results of the comparison of historic IDOT laboratory and field values of unconfined compressive strength of soils (Qu) are presented. The unconfined compressive strength is used in both ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor methods, and knowing how the values from field methods compare to the laboratory methods is critical to the informed application of the methods.
Show Abstract P-2013-01 ICT-13-027 Effects of a Nonuniform Subgrade Support on the Responses of Concrete Pavement A.S. Brand, J.R. Roesler, H.L. Chavan,. and F. Evangelista Jr. 9/1/2013
Intelligent compaction is gaining attention for its ability to spatially map the compaction effort of a pavement support layer, and it has also been shown to be able to detect areas of nonuniform compaction, which raises the issue of what the effects of a nonuniform support condition are on the stresses and deflections in a rigid pavement. This study considered multiple nonuniform support conditions, including theoretically generated and predetermined and randomly assigned from measured field data. The slabs and nonuniform support conditions were modeled using two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element methods with input variables being axle type, curling, and lateral and longitudinal axle movements. Overall the study found that certain nonuniform support conditions and axle positions can significantly increase the peak tensile stress in the slab over even uniform soft support. In particular, a single slab with soft longitudinal edge support and a slab with “randomly” assigned nonuniformities were critical cases that increased the peak slab tensile stresses. When the slab was modeled with preexisting through-length surface cracks, it was found that the nonuniform soft edges support conditions would result in unstable crack growth based on the significant increase in the stress intensity factor. When modeling a set of concrete slabs over a nonuniform support based on field data, the peak tensile stresses were increased relative to a uniform support based on the location of the wheel load relative to the nonuniformity and also based on the adjacent differences in nonuniform soil stiffness. The field data was also statistically reassigned by normal and beta distributions to predefined area sizes, which demonstrated that with a normal distribution, the probability of low k-values along the pavement edge increased thereby raising the probability of higher peak tensile stresses. Overall, certain nonuniform support of concrete slabs can produce much higher tensile stresses than a uniform support condition, particularly when considering different loading positions and curling conditions, soft support along the pavement edge, and preexisting cracks.
Show Abstract R27-113 FHWA-ICT-13-026 Modeling Seniors' Activity-Travel Data K. Mohammadian, B. Karimi, Z. Pourabdollahi, M. Frignani 8/1/2013
The United States is experiencing an increase in its elderly population. According to Census Bureau estimates, this population should increase by 104.2% from 2000 to 2030, which translates into 72.1 million elders by 2030. This demographic change will affect the transportation system, like any other socioeconomic system. Thus, this study seeks to understand the dynamics of elderly activity-travel behavior and its potential effects on the transportation system to better identify and meet seniors’ transportation needs. The Urban Travel Route and Activity Choice Survey (UTRACS), an automated, Internet- and GPS-based prompted-recall survey that was coupled with learning algorithms, was employed for that purpose. In this report, the study team analyzes elderly tour formation, activity-trip planning, mode-choice selection, and activity timing.
Show Abstract R27-093 FHWA-ICT-13-024 Transportation Conformity Particulate Matter Hot-Spot Air Quality Modeling J. Lin, S. Vallamsundar 7/1/2013
In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, this project is intended to (1) perform and demonstrate modeling of motor vehicle–generated PM in Illinois’s PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas [in IDOT Districts 1, 3, and 8 (northeastern Illinois and Metro East)], (2) identify data needs and gaps in PM2.5 hot-spot modeling, (3) gain technical insights into PM hot-spot modeling, and (4) understand uncertainties and limitations of PM hot-spot modeling. Three required regulatory models are investigated: MOVES, the latest U. S. Environmental Protection Agency mobile source emission model, and AERMOD and CAL3QHCR which are air dispersion models authorized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for PM hot-spot conformity analyses. For all three models, model inputs, parameters, model capability, model performance, and output are investigated thoroughly through one pilot study and three case studies - one highway project in the East St. Louis metropolitan area, and two arterial street-signal intersection projects located in both Chicago and Metro East areas. Major findings of the modeling exercises, modeling experience and insight, an/d recommendation for future work are discussed in the report.
Show Abstract R27-088 FHWA-ICT-13-023 Bridge Decks: Mitigation of Cracking and Increased Durability P. Chaunsali, S. Li, P. Mondal, D. Foutch, D. Richardson, Y. Tung, R. Hindi 7/1/2013
This report discusses the application of expansive cements (Type K and Type G) and shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRAs) in reducing the cracking due to drying shrinkage. The Type K expansive cement contained portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-based component whereas the Type G expansive system was made of portland cement and CaO-based component. The restrained expansion test in accordance with ASTM C 878 demonstrated that Type K and Type G concretes had minimal shrinkage at the end of 100 days. The Type K bridge deck model also exhibited a reduction in tensile strain on the order of 40-50 microstrains and reduction in excess shrinkage potential which showed its effectiveness in reducing the tensile stress due to drying shrinkage. The effect of mineral admixtures on expansion characteristics of Type K and Type G system is also discussed. The effectiveness of SRA was assessed using ASTM C 1581 that clearly showed the delay in cracking time due to addition of an SRA. The increase in SRA dosage reduced the drying shrinkage, but also resulted in reduction of compressive strength.
Show Abstract R27-116 FHWA-ICT-13-022 Investigation of Methods and Approaches for Collecting and Recording Highway Inventory Data H. Zhou, M. Jalayer, J. Gong, S. Hu, M. Grinter 9/3/2014
Many techniques for collecting highway inventory data have been used by state and local agencies in the U.S. These techniques include field inventory, photo/video log, integrated GPS/GIS mapping systems, aerial photography, satellite imagery, virtual photo tourism, terrestrial laser scanners, mobile mapping systems (i.e., vehicle-based LiDAR, and airborne LiDAR). These highway inventory data collection methods vary in terms of equipment used, time requirements, and costs. Each of these techniques has its specific advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. This research project sought to determine cost-effective methods to collect highway inventory data not currently stored in IDOT databases for implementing the recently published Highway Safety Manual (HSM). The highway inventory data collected using the identified methods can also be used for other functions within the Bureau of Safety Engineering, other IDOT offices, or local agencies. A thorough literature review was conducted to summarize the available techniques, costs, benefits, logistics, and other issues associated with all relevant methods of collecting, analyzing, storing, retrieving, and viewing the relevant data. In addition, a web-based survey of 49 U.S. states and 7 Canadian provinces has been conducted to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various highway inventory data collection methods from different state departments of transportation. To better understand the importance of the data to be collected, sensitivity analyses of input variables for the HSM models of different roadway types were performed. The field experiments and data collection were conducted at four types of roadway segments (rural two-lane highway, rural multi-lane highway, urban and suburban arterial, and freeway). A comprehensive evaluation matrix was developed to compare various data collection techniques based on different criteria. Recommendations were developed for selecting data collection techniques for data requirements and roadway conditions.
Show Abstract R27-103 FHWA-ICT-13-005 Green-Friendly Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Interstate Rest Areas, Phase II K. El-Rayes, L. Liu, M. Abdallah 6/1/2013
Interstate rest area buildings in Illinois range in age from 10 to nearly 50 years old and are on display and used 365 days a year by nearly 40 million people annually. The rest area sites comprise 53 buildings that provide restroom facilities, vending machines, and 11 welcome centers. These facilities are presently being maintained within the allowable budgets; however, they are in need of upgrades to improve their environmental and economic performance in supporting recent sustainability initiatives in Illinois. The main goal of this project was to investigate, determine, and recommend a list of green-friendly best management practices (BMPs) for the six interstate rest areas that have the highest energy consumption in Illinois. These six rest areas are Willow Creek, Coalfield, Great Sauk Trail, Mackinaw Dells, Cumberland Road, and Turtle Creek, which account for 32% of IDOT�s rest area energy bills. The main results and findings of this study include (1) an online survey of state departments of transportation (DOTs) conducted to gather information on their experiences in implementing green-friendly measures in rest areas, welcome centers, office buildings, and related buildings; (2) an investigation of installing temporary or permanent sub-metering systems to measure, monitor, and analyze the actual energy consumption of devices and fixtures in the six rest areas; (3) on-site assessments and field measurements of the six rest areas; (4) an identification of energy and water-saving alternatives that can be implemented in the six rest areas, including: LED and induction lighting; motion sensors for interior lighting, vending machines, and exhaust fans; grid-connected photovoltaic systems; solar water heaters; solar tube lighting; double-pane glass, vestibule entrances; Energy Star-rated HVAC systems; geothermal heat pumps; and water-saving plumbing fixtures; (5) an energy audit analysis for the six selected rest areas, using eQuest energy simulation software to analyze the impact of implementing various energy-saving alternatives; (6) an economic analysis of the identified energy-saving alternatives for the selected rest areas in terms of their required upgrade costs, life-cycle cost, and payback periods; and (7) a practical and user-friendly decision support tool that is capable of identifying optimal upgrade measures for public buildings in Illinois to achieve a specified Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification with the minimum upgrade costs or achieve the highest LEED points within a given upgrade budget.
Show Abstract R27-073 FHWA-ICT-13-008 Distance Technology Transfer Course Content Development J.P. Hall, W.G. Buttlar, K. Burke 6/1/2013
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) offers multiple technology transfer courses for engineering, project design, and safety training for state and local agency personnel. These courses are often essential to the agency mission. Because of resource constraints, IDOT has been limited in its ability to deliver courses to statewide participants in a timely, standardized, and cost-effective manner. With telecommunications advances and electronic course delivery technologies, universities have developed and implemented multiple methods to effectively deliver highly technical content online to a diverse population of students. Distance course delivery allows individuals to complete courses from almost any geographic location, enabling cost efficiencies and flexible scheduling. The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of the development and implementation of online course content for several high-benefit IDOT technology transfer training courses and short courses. This research project assessed learning management system (LMS) options and investigated multiple online methods to deliver course content incorporating Department knowledge and expertise. In addition, this research produced a summary of findings with recommendations for future electronic technology transfer course development efforts at IDOT.
Show Abstract R27-070 FHWA-ICT-13-015 Seismic Performance of Quasi-Isolated Bridges in Illinois J. LaFave, L. Fahnestock, D. Foutch, J. Steelman, J. Revell, E. Filipov, and J. Hajjar 6/1/2013
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) commonly uses elastomeric bearings to accommodate thermal deformations in bridges, and these bearings have potential utility in seismic events. IDOT has developed an Earthquake Resisting System (ERS) using the displacement capacity of typical bearings to achieve a structural response similar to isolation. Project R27-70 was conducted to validate and calibrate the quasi-isolated ERS based on full-scale laboratory tests of bearings and computational models capturing full-bridge seismic response. The overall report is divided into two volumes. Volume 1 discussed the experimental program. This second volume focuses on the analytical program but also contains retainer design recommendations. Results from the experimental testing program were used to develop constitutive bearing models, which were incorporated into the finite element model of a three-span bridge with simply supported abutments and fixed bearings at one pier. A suite of 48 bridges was created to represent the most common highway bridge configurations in Illinois. Variables included superstructure type, pier type, pier height, elastomeric bearing type, and foundation flexibility. Two sets of ten synthetic ground motions from the New Madrid Seismic Zone were scaled to match the AASHTO seismic design spectra for Cairo, Illinois, and applied in the longitudinal and transverse directions. A total of 12,000 nonlinear dynamic analyses were conducted in OpenSees at six scale factors from 0.5 to 1.75 and used to create coarse incremental dynamic analyses. On the basis of the findings of the parametric study, most bridges in Illinois would not experience severe damage during a 75-year design life, and bearing unseating or span loss are not likely to occur in regions with moderate seismic hazard. Piers with fixed bearings commonly yielded for small earthquakes, but future calibration of fuse capacities may improve this behavior.
Show Abstract R27-070 FHWA-ICT-13-002 Experimental Investigation of the Seismic Response of Bridge Bearings J. LaFave, L. Fahnestock, D. Foutch, J. Steelman, J. Revell, E. Filipov, J. Hajjar 5/1/2013
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) commonly uses elastomeric bearings to accommodate thermal deformations in bridges. These bearings also present an opportunity to achieve a structural response similar to isolation during seismic events. IDOT has been developing an earthquake resisting system (ERS) to leverage the displacement capacity available at typical bearings in order to provide seismic protection to substructures of typical bridges. The research program described in this report was conducted to validate and calibrate IDOT’s current implementation of design practice for the ERS, based on experiments conducted on typical full-size bearing specimens, as well as computational models capturing full bridge response. The overall final report is divided into two volumes. This first volume describes the experimental program and presents results and conclusions obtained from the bearing and retainer tests. The experiments described in this volume provide data to characterize force-displacement relationships for common bearing types used in Illinois. The testing program comprised approximately 60 individual tests on some 26 bearing assemblies and components (i.e., retainers). The testing program included (1) Type I elastomeric bearings, consisting of a steel-reinforced elastomeric block vulcanized to a thick top plate; (2) Type II elastomeric bearings, distinct from Type I bearings with a steel bottom plate vulcanized to the bottom of the elastomeric block, and a flat sliding layer with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and stainless steel mating surfaces between the elastomer and the superstructure; and (3) low-profile fixed bearings. Tests conducted to simulate transverse bridge motion also included stiffened L-shaped retainers, consistent with standard IDOT practice. Tests were conducted using monotonic and cyclic displacement protocols, at compression loads corresponding to a range of elastomer compression stresses from 200 to 800 psi. Peak displacements from initial position ranged from 7-1/2 in. to 12-1/2 in., depending on bearing size. Test rates were generally quasi-static, but increased velocities up to 4 in./sec were used for bearings with PTFE and for a subset of other elastomeric bearings. On the basis of all of the experimental findings, bearing fuse force capacities have been determined, and appropriate shear stiffness and friction coefficient values for seismic response have been characterized and bracketed.
Show Abstract R27-SP21 FHWA-ICT-13-020 Carbon Monoxide Screen for Signalized Intersections: COSIM, Version 4.0--Technical Documentation S. Peters 6/1/2013
Illinois Carbon Monoxide Screen for Intersection Modeling (COSIM) Version 3.0 is a Windows-based computer program currently used by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) to estimate worst-case carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near signalized intersections in Illinois. Modeled results from COSIM are based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) mobile source emission model, MOBILE6.2, and roadway dispersion model, CAL3QHC v 2.0. Emission factor (EF) tables derived from MOBILE6.2 are incorporated directly into COSIM’s program coding. Recent regulatory changes in mobile source emissions modeling have prompted IDOT to update the EFs used in COSIM with EFs estimated using EPA's Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) mobile source emission model. This report documents the changes made to COSIM, Version 3.0, that allow IDOT to continue to use COSIM (Version 4.0) to estimate worst-case CO concentrations for proposed roadway projects with signalized intersections in 2013 and beyond.
Show Abstract R27-091 FHWA-ICT-13-007 Evaluation of Traffic-Flow Monitoring Technologies: Cicero-Midway Smart Corridor Case Study J. Eriksson 6/1/2013
The original goal of this project was to (1) collect probe-vehicle and sensor data in the region of interest, and perform cleaning and map matching of the data; and (2) evaluate the accuracy of multiple technologies, either through direct comparison with ground truth (probe vehicles) when data are available or through simulation where direct measurement data were unavailable. Due to a substantial and unexpected lack of spatiotemporally coinciding measurement and ground-truth data, the project changed direction midway, to quickly capitalize on technology developed in the earlier stages and to attempt to remedy the underlying problem that led to our present difficulty: the unavailability of substantial and low-cost travel-time measurements. Under this new direction, the project was successful. A prototype system for low-cost traffic-flow measurement using Wi-Fi transmission monitoring has been developed and successfully demonstrated, A survey of efficient vehicle-tracking methods was performed, comparing over 100 alternative methods, leading to the development of a significantly more accurate and cost-effective method. Finally, technology developed in the early stages of the project were repurposed to facilitate the creation of the UIC Shuttle Tracker.
Show Abstract R27-110 FHWA-ICT-13-019 WorkZoneQ User Guide for Two-Lane Freeway Work Zones R. Benekohal, H. Ramezani, K. Avrenli 6/1/2013
WorkZoneQ was developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to implement the results of the previous study, “Queue and Users’ Costs in Highway Work Zones.” This report contains the WorkZoneQ user guide. WorkZoneQ consists of eight Excel worksheets and input data are traffic information, geometric characteristics, traffic control plan, and value of time figures. Then WorkZoneQ determines the capacity and computes queue length, delay, users’ costs, and congestion duration. It also determines the intervals that do not satisfy IDOT mobility standards. Eight example problems were solved. The first one is a basic example to obtain the above output data. The successive examples show the capability of the program to handle different time interval lengths, variation of volume within the interval, flagger presence, police presence, change in work intensity, temporary roadway blockage, and different speed limits. Three workshops were conducted for IDOT engineers and their feedback was used to further improve the program. The current version of the program was developed using field data collected from 2-to-1 freeway work zones and it is recommended that a future project expand the program for other lane configurations.
Show Abstract R27-097 FHWA-ICT-13-004 State-of-the-Art Literature Review on Permissive/Protected Left-Turn Control (Volume 1 of Project No. R27-97) K.L. Schattler, J.A. Lund 6/1/2013
In spring 2010, the Illinois Department of Transportation initiated an areawide implementation to integrate the flashing yellow arrow as the display for the left-turn permissive interval at more than 100 intersections operating with protected/permissive left-turn (PPLT) control. Bradley University was retained to perform an effectiveness evaluation of the FYA at these locations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect on safety and operations of upgrading the circular green permissive indication to FYA indications at intersections operating with PPLT phasing. The research tasks included performing comprehensive, areawide traffic crash analyses; conducting field studies of traffic operations and traffic conflicts; and assessing driver comprehension of the new traffic control through a survey instrument. To fulfill the research objectives, a comprehensive state-of-the-art literature review was conducted; the findings are documented in this report. The purpose of the literature review was to document the current knowledge and research findings involving PPLT control, and specifically, studies involving FYA indications. More than 30 journal papers, reports and other published documents were reviewed. These sources reported findings from driver comprehension studies, driving simulator studies, crash-based evaluations, and operational effects of various PPLT control strategies, including the flashing yellow arrow. This report provides a synthesis of the state-of-the-art on various left-turn traffic control strategies.
Show Abstract R27-097 FHWA-ICT-13-021 Driver Comprehension and Operations Evaluation of Flashing Yellow Arrows (Volume 2 of Project No. R27-97) K.L. Schattler, A. Rietgraf, B. Burdett, W. Lorton 6/1/2013
In spring 2010, the Illinois Department of Transportation initiated an areawide implementation of the flashing yellow arrow (FYA) as the display for the left-turn permissive interval at more than 100 intersections operating with protected/permissive left-turn (PPLT) control in the Peoria, Illinois, area. Bradley University researchers evaluated the effectiveness of FYAs on driver comprehension and traffic operations. A total of 363 drivers completed an online static survey that included seven left-turn scenarios that portrayed the protected and permissive indications of PPLT phasing, with the flashing modes being animated. The results of the survey indicated that drivers had a high comprehension of both the circular green (CG) and FYA permissive left-turn indications. However, the survey results provided evidence of some drivers’ misinterpreting the meaning of a permissive left-turn with CG display and incorrectly and unsafely interpreting the meaning as “go” under some circumstances. With supplemental traffic signs present, drivers’ understanding of the correct action to take when confronted with a FYA significantly increased, and the percentage of fail-critical, incorrect “go” responses significantly decreased. Before and after field observations, including 128 hours of data collected at 16 study approaches, were collected; and the following variables were investigated: critical gap, left-turn red-light running and yellow-light running, and traffic conflicts. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that drivers in the Peoria, Illinois, area had high comprehension and acceptance of the FYA message. Additionally, the FYA did not appear to have any negative impacts on traffic operations.
Show Abstract R27-099 FHWA-ICT-13-017 Improvement for Determining the Axial Capacity of Drilled Shafts in Shale in Illinois T.D. Stark, J.H. Long, P. Assem 5/1/2013
In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale. In addition, recommendations for field and laboratory testing to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales in Illinois were developed and presented herein. For this project, weak shale is defined as an intermediate geologic material (IGM) with an unconfined compressive strength of 10 to 100 ksf. These investigation and design improvements are anticipated to lead to safer design and substantial deep-foundation cost savings for IDOT.
Show Abstract R27-055 FHWA-ICT-12-022 Thermal Behavior of IDOT Integral Abutment Bridges and Proposed Design Modifications S.M. Olson, K.P. Holloway, J.M. Buenker, J.H. Long, J.M. LaFave 5/1/2013
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has increasingly constructed integral abutment bridges (IABs) over the past few decades, similar to those in many other states. Because the length and skew limitations currently employed by IDOT have not necessarily been based on rigorous engineering analyses, an extensive 3-D parametric study has been performed, complemented by installation of field monitoring equipment on two recently constructed bridges, to potentially expand the use of IABs in Illinois. Some notable findings from this study include: (1) IAB configuration with extreme skew (> 60°) can perform well with proper detailing; (2) H-pile webs oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bridge, regardless of skew, substantially reduces weak-axis bending; (3) compacted backfill reduces pile stresses; (4) live loads affect thermally induced pile stresses; (5) longer intermediate spans tend to increase pile stresses; and (6) time-dependent behaviors, such as concrete shrinkage, may significantly influence maximum pile stresses. Based on these findings, a more rigorously developed set of recommendations for maximum IAB lengths and skews in Illinois are proposed.
Show Abstract ICT-13-018 ICT-13-018 Flexural Capacity of Rigid Pavement Concrete Slabs with Recycled Aggregates A.S. Brand, A.N. Amirkhanian, J.R. Roesler 5/1/2013
Few studies have focused on the effect of recycled materials on the concrete slab load capacity. This study used virgin and recycled aggregates—fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement (FRAP) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA)—and by-product cementitious materials—ground granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash—to cast and test the load capacity of single- and two-lift concrete slabs. Five concrete mixtures were examined, which were virgin aggregate (the control) and four different replacements of coarse aggregate: 45% FRAP, 45% FRAP with macrofibers, 100% RCA, and a blend of 45% FRAP and 55% RCA. For all laboratory specimens tested, the virgin aggregate concrete had the highest strength (compression, split tension, and flexural) and modulus of elasticity, and the mix with 45% FRAP and fibers resulted in the lowest properties, which was attributed to the relatively high air content of the fresh concrete. With the exception of the mix with 45% FRAP and fibers, the critical stress intensity factor and initial and total fracture energies of the recycled aggregate concretes were not statistically different than the virgin aggregate concrete using the single edge notched beam specimen.
Show Abstract R27-114 FHWA-ICT-13-016 Restoration Progress and Flood Disturbance at IDOT Wetland Mitigation Sites G.E. Pociask, J.W. Matthews 4/1/2013
As required under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and the Illinois Interagency Wetland Policy Act of 1989, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has established wetlands at mitigation sites throughout Illinois to compensate for impacts to natural wetlands by road construction. One of the mechanisms for meeting regulatory obligations is to mitigate wetland impacts through restoration or creation of wetlands that provide functions similar to natural wetlands, under the federal policy goal of “no net loss” of wetland area and function. Progress toward restoring wetland functions is measured through the use of prescribed performance standards issued by state and federal regulatory agencies. In most cases, these performance standards contain measures of quality, health, and structure of wetland plant communities. The majority of extant Illinois wetlands and most IDOT wetland mitigation sites are located in floodplain areas and are exposed to varying degrees of flooding, depending on their location within a given watershed, their position within the floodplain setting, and their climate zone within the state. Among the major challenges in attaining vegetation-based performance standards at IDOT wetland mitigation projects are poor plant-community quality (e.g., low species richness) and mortality of planted trees. Although floodplain wetlands are supported by regular flooding, floods can also produce excessive sediment, cause ice damage, and result in prolonged inundation—leading to mortality in wetland plants, thereby interrupting expected trajectories of succession and progress toward achieving mitigation performance standards. In this study, we analyzed data collected by the Illinois Natural History Survey and the Illinois State Geological Survey during past and current site monitoring to examine the influence that flooding has on ecological mechanisms that lead to variation in the performance levels among a large number of floodplain compensatory mitigation wetlands. The goals of the analyses were to evaluate the influence that flooding has on (1) plant-community quality at the landscape scale and (2) species turnover within plant-community functional groups at wetland mitigation sites. For the first component of the analysis, we used simple linear regression to evaluate the influence of flooding on the levels of ten plant-community metrics. Results of linear regression analysis showed significant, inverse relationships between mean annual flood exposure and average levels of three of the ten plant-community metrics: species richness, floristic quality index (FQI), and proportion of perennial species. Also, we used hierarchical mixed models to evaluate the influence of flooding on loss and subsequent gain of species within seven species functional groups. Mixed models showed significant correlation of the loss of species within all species groups with magnitude of flood intensity in the same year, and the gain of non-hydrophytic, annual, and non-native species with magnitude of flood intensity in the preceding year. Results of this study indicate two general tendencies at IDOT wetland mitigation sites: (1) Higher average magnitudes of flooding will lead to decreased species richness, floristic quality, and proportion of perennials in floodplain settings and significantly decrease the likelihood of attaining performance standards based on these metrics; and (2) higher-magnitude floods will tend to disrupt succession by eliminating the species groups that are associated with higher-quality plant communities and allow more undesirable species to colonize in the year following flood disturbance. These tendencies highlight the importance of considering flood-disturbance regime, when evaluating the quality of plant communities in floodplain wetlands. Additionally, planted-tree counts and mapping were conducted to provide a baseline for future tree-survival studies at three sites. Potential future studies would track survivorship of each tree species in response to flood disturbance.
Show Abstract R27-096 FHWA-ICT-13-013 Pedestrian/Bicyclist Warning Devices and Signs at Highway-Rail and Pathway-Rail Grade Crossings P. Metaxatos, P.J. Sriraj 4/1/2013
Federal reporting shows a relatively constant number of pedestrian and bicycle fatalities at highway-rail and pathway-rail grade crossings over the past 10 years. This is in contrast to a marked decrease in train–vehicle collisions at highway-rail crossings. Although engineering solutions and education and enforcements initiatives have been proposed and implemented, little is known about their effectiveness to mitigate such incidents. This study reports on findings from the literature, discussions with professionals in the public and private sectors involved in safety at rail grade crossings, and pedestrian/non-motorized user behavior and attitudes toward safety at such crossings. The study highlights the multitude of factors related to pedestrian safety in this context and provides an informed discussion for stakeholders to advance safety initiatives.
Show Abstract R27-081 FHWA-ICT-12-021 Field Performance Evaluations of Illinois Aggregates for Subgrade Replacement and Subbase, Phase II D. Mishra, E. Tutumluer 4/1/2013
The project objective was to validate the results from ICT Project R27-1, which characterized in the laboratory the strength, stiffness, and deformation behaviors of three different aggregate types commonly used in Illinois for subgrade replacement and subbase applications, through accelerated loading of full-scale pavement working platform test sections. Six different test “cells” were constructed at different combinations of aggregate material quality and subgrade strength, and were tested to failure using the University of Illinois Accelerated Transportation Loading Assembly (ATLAS). Each cell was tested along two different wheel paths representing two different aggregate layer moisture contents (Cells 1-5), or geotextile reinforcement conditions (Cell 6). Performances under loading were monitored through surface profile measurements as well as transverse scanning with ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Field and laboratory test results highlighted the importance of considering aggregate quality in the thickness design of aggregate layers for construction platforms. Thick layers of uncrushed gravel placed over a weak subgrade mainly underwent internal shear failure due to excessive movement of the aggregate particles. Crushed aggregate layers constructed with high relative compaction, on the other hand, showed significantly higher resistance to internal shear deformation and permanent deformation accumulations. Prolonged exposure to moisture and freeze-thaw effects was found to be beneficial for a crushed dolomite material with high amounts of nonplastic fines probably due to carbonate cementation within the fine fraction. Failure of test sections under flooded conditions was primarily caused by excessive deformation in the subgrade layer. Recommendations were made based on the study findings for improved material selection and thickness designs of aggregate working platforms.
Show Abstract R27-080 FHWA-ICT-12-023 Fatigue Performance of Brass Breakaway Light Pole Couplings J. Rudd, G. Banas, C. Hahin 4/1/2013
Breakaway couplings connect light pole bases to foundation anchor bolts and are intended to fracture on impact after vehicle collision to protect drivers and passengers from severe injury. The coupling consists of an internally threaded hollow hexagon made of half-hard CDA 360 brass with a thread-locked stainless steel stud. Several designs of the notched hexagonal shaped coupling were tested in bending by attaching them to a simulated pole tube and base and then inducing stresses by deflection of the tube by a hydraulic jack. Individual couplings were also fatigued in axial tension-compression by a servo-controlled universal testing machine. Using the data obtained, the axial tension-compression fatigue relationship for the brass couplings was (delta)S = 433 N –0.153, where (delta)S is the alternating stress from tension to compression. Finite element analysis using ABAQUS® found that stress concentrations in the external notch radius and the internal threads were accurate to about 20% of the values obtained from experimental strain gage data. The stress concentration factors for the final design were determined to be Ktt = 10.8 in tension and Ktc = 10.4 in compression. Couplings were fatigue tested in laboratory air at room temperatures in the range of 104 to 107 cycles. Couplings that were exposed to 1000 hr of salt fog prior to fatigue testing showed no difference in fatigue life compared to couplings fatigued in air. Standard structural theory was used to determine the nominal stresses of couplings attached to steel poles subjected to winds of 90 mph. Using an average stress concentration factor Ktavg of 10.6, the peak coupling stress in various orientations of the pole base with respect to the wind direction was determined to be 24.1 ksi. When a more accurate segmental wind pressure method of determining moments acting on the pole base was used, the calculated peak stress was 23.9 ksi. At 90 mph, a +24 ksi to –24 ksi alternating stress develops, resulting in a 50% mean fatigue life estimated at 1,799,000 cycles. Variances in notch section were caused by straightness deviations of hexagon stock and from drilling and tapping operations, averaging 4.2% to a maximum of 9%. The fatigue initiation zone was about 30? of the notch circumference. The probability that four couplings would have only the weakest one facing the maximum wind exposure is 30?/360?/4, which is about 2% of the time. Maximum wind speeds recorded in Illinois are less than the 90 mph AASHTO requirement. Decreasing notch depth by 9% would lessen the likelihood of premature failure due to insufficient load-bearing section of the coupling notch.
Show Abstract R27-054 FHWA-ICT-13-012 Stormwater Pollution, Erosion, and Sediment Control Products Demonstration and Training Center P. Kalita, R. Bhattarai, R. Cooke, H. Howard, N. Svendsen 4/1/2013
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), and the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers joined in a partnership to develop a training and demonstration facility for erosion and sediment control and stormwater management. With funding from IDOT and in-kind contribution from the Illinois Land Improvement Contractors Association (ILICA), a facility was built on 5 acres of land at the UIUC South Farm. The formal name of this training, demonstration, and research facility is the Erosion and Sediment Control Research and Training Center (ESCRTC). The aim of the center is to provide training and perform research and evaluation of stormwater management, soil erosion control, and sediment control best management practices (BMPs). The center has a field research and demonstration site, along with a field classroom for training. The field site includes a large earthen berm, a pump house, a detention pond, and three channels of varying configurations.
Show Abstract R27-052 FHWA-ICT-12-017 Minimizing Traffic-Related Work Zone Crashes in Illinois K. El-Rayes, L. Liu, T. Elghamrawy 4/1/2013
This report presents the findings of a research project to study and develop recommendations to minimize work zone crashes in Illinois. The objectives of this project were (1) to provide in-depth comprehensive review of the latest literature on traffic-related work zone crashes and conduct site visits of work zones in Illinois, (2) to analyze the frequency and severity of traffic-related work zone crashes in Illinois, (3) to quantify the impact of layout parameters on the risk of crash occurrence and develop practical recommendations to control the factors contributing to work zone crashes in Illinois, and (4) to evaluate the practicality and effectiveness of adding temporary/portable rumble strips within and before work zones. To achieve these objectives, the research team carried out six major tasks: (1) conducting a comprehensive literature review, (2) collecting and fusing all available data and reports on work zone crashes in Illinois, (3) analyzing work zone crashes and identifying their contributing factors, (4) identifying the impact of layout parameters on the risk of crash occurrences and developing practical recommendations to improve work zone layouts, (5) performing field experiments to evaluate the efficiency of using temporary rumble strips in work zones, and (6) evaluating the effectiveness of temporary rumble strips before work zones begin and at the edge of work zones. During this study, the research team identified a number of promising research areas for further in-depth analysis and investigation: (1) investigating the practicality and effectiveness of using new prototypes of temporary rumble strips at the edge of work zones, (2) improving safety for construction equipment entering and exiting work zones, and (3) optimizing work zone transportation management plans (TMPs) to maximize work zone safety while minimizing total work zone costs.
Show Abstract R27-084 FHWA-ICT-13-011 Travel Reliability Inventory for Chicago Y. Nie, X. Wu, Q. Li, P. Nelson 4/1/2013
The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from various traffic data sources. In due course, travel reliability inventories will provide necessary inputs to next-generation transportation decision-making tools that are sensitive to travel reliability. TRIC incorporates reliable routing algorithms to construct and rank travel reliability indexes on routes between any given origin-destination pair in the network. It also implements a basic graphical user interface for creating and visualizing travel reliability indexes and archiving them in ESRI shape format, which can be read by most GIS (geographic information system) software. Case studies using data from the Chicago area were conducted demonstration purposes.
Show Abstract R27-042 FHWA-ICT-13-001 Development of an Economical, Thin, Quiet, Long-Lasting, High Friction Surface Layer, Volume 1: Mix Design and Lab Performance Testing I.L. Al-Qadi, S. Son, S.H. Carpenter 3/1/2013
This project developed and evaluated four new asphalt concrete (AC) mixtures that use locally available aggregates whenever possible with the ultimate goal of a cost-effective mixture that also improves pavement performance. Although numerous tactics have previously been introduced to improve the performance of asphalt pavement, these improvements often add expenses because they use unnecessarily large amounts of high quality aggregates and highly modified binder. The Illinois Department of Transportation initiated a program to develop sustainable asphalt pavements that use locally available aggregates as much as possible to reduce the material cost while also improving performance. These new mixtures were developed using the Bailey method to provide a promising aggregate structure that makes it possible to ensure compactability at thinner layers. The newly developed mixes use locally available natural aggregates such as dolomite, and including smaller amounts of imported materials such as quartzite, steel slag, and fibers to improve their performance in terms of durability, rut resistance, moisture susceptibility, fracture, and complex modulus. To evaluate the performance of each new mixture, five laboratory tests were conducted at the Advanced Transportation and Research Engineering Laboratory (ATREL), and the results suggest a preferred mixture.
Show Abstract R27-042 FHWA-ICT-13-006 Development of an Economical Thin, Quiet, Long-Lasting, High Friction Surface Layer for Economical Use in Illinois, Volume 2: Field Construction, Field Testing, and Engineering Benefit Analysis I.L. Al-Qadi, S. Son, T. Zehr 3/1/2013
This project provides techniques to improve hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays specifically through the use of special additives and innovative surfacing technologies with aggregates that are locally available in Illinois. The ultimate goal is to improve pavement performance through optimized materials while also controlling cost by efficiently using local materials. Therefore, the proposed new mixes use locally available aggregates when possible. The project also considered the use of alternative aggregates such as steel slag to increase the friction quality of the HMA and therefore improve pavement performance. To evaluate the newly developed wearing course mixtures and evaluate their performance under actual traffic loading, test pavements were constructed, including control mixtures, between August and November 2010 in northern Illinois. The newly proposed mixtures include fine dense-graded HMA and stone matrix asphalt (SMA). The fine dense-graded HMA was designed using the Bailey method and developed with the hope of improved compactability for thinner asphalt layers. The SMA contained a 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) that allows for layers as thin as 0.75 in. On-site performance tests were conducted at 4-month intervals following construction; the tests include noise, friction, rutting, and texture profiling. An engineering benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the new mixes’ cost effectiveness. New HMAs are proposed, along with alternative cross-sections that improve pavement performance while controlling costs.
Show Abstract R27-083 FHWA-ICT-13-010 Goods Movement Study in Illinois: Application to Freight Transportation and Logistics K. Mohammadian, K. Sturm, Z. Pourabdollahi, A. Samimi 3/1/2013
This report details the results generated by a recently completed nationwide online freight establishment study. The survey was assembled with the intention of allowing the formulation or enhancement of new or existing freight-demand microsimulation models. Within this report is an overview of the steps taken in designing and implementing the establishment and shipment questionnaires of the freight survey. Following that is a descriptive analysis of the results of key questions posed in our survey. Over the course of the study, 966 usable establishment surveys and 1,844 shipment forms were collected and assembled in a database, an adequate number for modeling purposes.
Show Abstract R27-100 FHWA-ICT-12-004 Best Practices for Implementation of Tack Coat: Part 1 - Laboratory Study I. L. Al-Qadi, K.I. Hasiba, A. Salinas Cortina, H. Ozer, Z. Leng, D. Parish, S. Worsfold 7/1/2012
Tack coat is a light layer of diluted asphalt that is applied to hot mix asphalt concrete (HMA) or Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement surfaces to ensure good interface bonding between layers. Interface bonding is affected by several factors; including tack coat (type, application rate, curing time, application temperature, and asphalt residue content), pavement surface characteristics (asphalt content, aggregate type and gradation, and surface texture), and environmental conditions. This study evaluated interface bonding between two HMA layers by conducting a laboratory shear performance test. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of various tack coats and determine the optimum residual application rates for three pavement surfaces: unmilled aged nontrafficked, milled aged, and unmilled aged trafficked HMA. The study also examined the influences of tack coat curing time, temperature, HMA type, and surface texture on the performance of tack coats. The study considered four tack coat materials: SS-1hp, high float emulsion (HFE), SS-1vh (very hard, no-track emulsion), and straight asphalt (PG 64-22). The tack coat was optimized at residual rates of 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 gal/yd2 (0.00, 0.09, 0.18, 0.26, and 0.36 L/m2). Three curing times were considered: 0.25, 2, and 24 hr. Two overlay mixes (9.5-mm surface mix and 4.75-mm surface mix) were used. Prior to testing, the specimens were conditioned at four temperatures: 5°F, 41°F, 77°F, and 113°F (–15°C, 5°C, 25°C, and 45°C). The study found that the optimum tack coat residual rate was 0.04 gal/yd2 (0.18 L/m2) for trafficked and nontrafficked unmilled aged HMA surfaces, while the optimum residual rate for milled HMA was 0.06 gal/yd2 (0.26 L/m2). SS-1vh tack coat showed superior performance over the other tested tack coats. The optimum curing time was determined to be 2 hr. Milling the surface improved interface shear strength. The interface shear resistance was greater when the surface nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) increased from 4.75 mm to 9.5 mm. Increasing the temperature resulted in a reduction in shear strength.
Show Abstract R27-100 FHWA-ICT-12-005 Best Practices for Implementation of Tack Coat: Part 2 - Field Study I.L. Al-Qadi, A. Salinas Cortina, K.I. Hasiba, H. Ozer, Z. Leng, D.C. Parish 7/1/2012
Interface bonding between pavement layers is a key factor affecting the performance of any pavement structure. Over the years, several studies have been performed to better understand bonding between pavement layers. The first phase of this study was a laboratory assessment, which analyzed different parameters to better characterize the interlayer bond in pavements. Phase 2 of the study was a field validation and evaluation. This report, based on the results of phase 2, focuses on optimizing in-situ tack coat application rate and field installation. The main objectives of phase 2 were to validate the lab-determined optimum residual application rate for tack coat materials on a milled hot-mix asphalt (HMA) surface and to evaluate field performance of tack coat materials. Several parameters were analyzed, including the cleaning method prior to tack coat application, the paving procedure, tack coat type, and existing pavement surface texture. Tack coat materials used were SS-1h, SS-1hp, and SS-1vh (non-track tack coat). For the cleaning methods, the conventional procedures, broom and vacuum, were used on most of the sections and were compared to air-blast cleaning. Two paving procedures were studied: the conventional paving method using a distributor truck and a regular paver, and the spray paver, which applies tack coat and paves at the same time. Twenty-six sections were constructed on Interstate 80 in Illinois, and 19 sections were built on Illinois Route 98. The Interstate 80 test sections were constructed on three existing pavement surfaces: milled HMA, milled Portland cement concrete (PCC), and fresh binder stone mastic asphalt (SMA). Two tests were used to analyze interface bonding: the interface shear test and the torque bond test. The test section on Illinois Route 98 was constructed on a milled surface. All specimens were cored in the field and tested at the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) using the Interface Shear Test Device (ISTD). The results showed similar bond strength for the two types of cleaning methods; however, air-blast cleaning required use of a lower optimum residual application rate in the field to achieve the same bond strength. The bond strength at the interface when tack coat was applied with a spray paver is similar to the bond strength achieved when a conventional paver was used. The optimum residual application rate for milled surfaces obtained from the laboratory was 0.06 gal/yd2 (0.27 L/m2). This rate was validated at both test sites. The optimum residual application rate obtained for fresh binder SMA was 0.02 gal/yd2 (0.09 L/m2). SS-1vh performed better than any other tack coat material studied, and SS-1hp performed better than SS-1h. Identification of the optimum tack coat application rate will help ensure cost-effective and efficient tack coat application and will enhance pavement performance. It will also help the industry to better optimize resources and improve pavement performance.
Show Abstract R27-SP20 FHWA-ICT-12-020 Safety Benefits of Implementing Adaptive Signal Control Technology: Survey Results M. Lodes, R.F. Benekohal 1/1/2013
The safety benefits and costs associated with implementing adaptive signal control technology (ASCT) were evaluated in this study. A user-friendly online survey was distributed to 62 agencies that had implemented ASCT in the United States. Twenty-two agencies responded to the survey, providing information about the system type, detection type, and cost of ASCT implementation. These agencies were from city governments (47%), state governments (29%), and county governments (24%). They represented both a wide range of ASCT implementation rates (from 1 to 700 intersections) and five of the most popular ASCT systems. There was a range of ASCT costs for different systems and detection types used with the system. The average cost per intersection to the agencies that responded was $38,223 when cost data from all agencies were included, but it was $28,725 when the cost data from agencies with the lowest and highest figures were excluded. Detailed volume and geometry data were provided by the respondents for six specific intersections. Crash data were provided for three of these six intersections. Each of the three intersections exhibited a crash reduction, but the sample size was too small for statistical testing. The observed ASCT cost per intersection per annual crash reduction was computed for the three intersections, and it ranged from $5,444 to $37,500. The scope of this study was very limited; thus, only very limited conclusions could be drawn. The limited data seem to indicate that there are safety benefits for implementing ASCT. It is recommended that a controlled experiment of ASCT implementation in Illinois be conducted to determine benefit–cost ratios and compute a crash modification factor (CMF).
Show Abstract R27-051 FHWA-ICT-12-015 Guidelines, Site Selection, and Design for Implementing Truck Parking/Rest Facilities in Chicago's South Suburbs L. Rohter, J. Fain, H. Lohman, P. Beltemacchi 11/1/2012
This study proposes a network of overnight truck parking facilities in south suburban Chicago intended to accomplish a wide range of federal, state, and local policy objectives. At the federal and state levels, this report’s policy objectives seek to increase traffic safety, reduce traffic congestion, address public safety and environmental concerns, and encourage economic security and satisfactory working conditions for the nation’s truck drivers. At the local level, this report’s policy objectives seek to implement brownfield containment and use strategies, support economic revitalization, reduce nuisance parking, and encourage industrial park owners and developers to create shared parking arrangements between trucks and automobiles. To achieve these objectives, the research team has identified key policy and design issues that are usually involved in planning and building overnight truck parking facilities. These issues include traffic safety, highway access, proximity to other freight facilities and industries, brownfield containment and utilization, neighborhood character, environmental issues, use of shared facilities, traffic flow, traffic/parking information systems, fencing/secured entry and exits, surveillance, lot size, pavement, drainage, striping, signage, lighting, and amenities. These issues are highlighted in case studies that will help municipalities and prospective investors interested in implementing overnight truck parking facilities. The research team has also provided a list of material improvements and their approximate costs to give a clearer picture of the capital needed to implement overnight truck parking facilities.
Show Abstract R27-089 FHWA-ICT-12-019 2010 Highway Safety Manual Lead State Peer-to-Peer Workshop Y. Ouyang 10/1/2012
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the 2010 Highway Safety Manual (HSM) Lead State Peer-to-Peer Workshop November 17–18, 2010, at the IDOT District 1 Office in Schaumburg, Illinois. The peer-exchange workshop involved representatives from 13 selected states and experts familiar with HSM development and implementation in order to facilitate the exchange of experiences and examples related to HSM implementation among the lead states. The workshop covered a wide range of topics regarding the institution-alization of new quantitative safety methods (policies, design, planning, leadership, etc.), challenges and barriers (data collection and integration, statistical methods, analysis tools, training needs), case studies, and successful applications of the HSM. This report summarizes attendee statistics, the conference program, main activities (including 24 presentation and discussion sessions), and attendee feedback. Prospects for future workshops and training opportunities are also discussed.
Show Abstract R27-082 FHWA-ICT-12-014 Load Rating and Retrofit Testing of Bridge Timber Piles Subjected to Eccentric Loading P. Caiza, M. Shin, B. Andrawes 11/1/2012
This report first evaluated the load rating procedure currently in use by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) for rating timber piles supporting multiple-span, simply supported bridges. For simplicity, these piles are often rated under concentric loads, and the effect of bending in the piles is neglected. Recent studies have shown, however, that under highly eccentric live loads, the effect of bending moments in the piles is of great importance and could have an impact on the piles’ load rating. The report proposed an alternative structural load rating method for timber piles based on the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS), which took into consideration the effect of combined compression-flexure behavior of piles. This method was used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effect of several geometric and structural parameters on the load rating of bridge timber piles using 3-D finite element models of concrete deck bridges supported on groups of timber piles. The results showed that the proposed load rating method produced significantly lower ratings for piles with moderate to high levels of deterioration, as compared to the ratings obtained using the conventional approach. Among the studied parameters, the length of piles was found to have the most significant impact on the load rating of the piles. The report also presents a study on examining a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)-based retrofitting method for timber piles subjected to combined axial and bending loading. A total of twenty pile specimens were tested in the study, four under compression-only load and sixteen under compression-flexure load. Each specimen was tested twice, before and after retrofitting with glass FRP (GFRP) or carbon FRP (CFRP) sheets. To assess the impact of realistic field conditions, different details of the FRP retrofit technique were investigated, including using mortar shell, introducing a mortar-filled wedge in the tested specimen to mimic the effect of decayed wood, and “posting” the piles with nails instead of steel drift pins. The test results showed that the strength of the tested specimens using the proposed GFRP retrofit technique was fully recovered or even enhanced compared to that of the unretrofitted specimens, regardless of the retrofit details adopted in the tests. On average, specimens retrofitted with GFRPs showed strength 10% greater than that of unretrofitted specimens. The behavior of CFRP sheets, however, was less satisfactory due to the small thickness of the CFRP shell used as a result of the high strength of CFRP compared to GFRP. It was also found from the study that using mortar shell along with FRP sheets helped enhance the stiffness of the retrofitted pile. Finally, linear regression analysis was conducted on the test data to develop a formula that could be used for the design of FRP retrofit for bridge timber piles subjected to axial-bending loading.
Show Abstract R27-SP19 FHWA-ICT-12-018 Laboratory Evaluation of High Asphalt Binder Replacement with Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) for a Low N-Design Asphalt Mixture H. Ozer, I.L. Al-Qadi, and A. Kanaan 10/1/2012
This study investigated the effect of high asphalt binder replacement for a low N-design asphalt mixture including RAP and RAS on performance indicators such as permanent deformation, fracture, fatigue potentials, and stiffness, was studied. An experimental program included complex modulus, fracture, overlay reflective cracking resistance, wheel track permanent deformations, and push-pull fatigue tests. The asphalt binder replacement, combinations of RAS and RAP asphalt binder, levels in the mix were in a range of 43 to 64%. According to the results obtained from the experimental program, permanent deformation resistance of the mixtures was improved in the presence of RAS. Fracture tests at low temperature did not reveal any significant difference between the specimens prepared at varying percentages of asphalt binder replacement. Fatigue potential of mixtures increased with increasing RAS content and asphalt binder replacement. The specimens prepared with 2.5% RAS and PG 46-34 showed the best fatigue performance. The impact of asphalt binder bumping was highlighted by the results of all tests. The improvement in fatigue life and fracture energy was noticeable when the asphalt binder type was changed from PG 58-28 to PG 46-34 at the highest asphalt binder replacement level. The results showed that complex modulus test results can provide crucial information about the mix viscoelastic properties such as relaxation potential and long-term stiffness that can be used, along with fracture tests, to evaluate mix brittleness at relatively high asphalt binder replacement levels.
Show Abstract R27-076 FHWA-ICT-12-012 LED Roadway Lighting, Volume 1: Background Information Kivanç A. Avrenli, Rahim F. Benekohal, Juan C. Medina 10/1/2012
Roadway lighting is a fundamental public service that leads to a safer environment for both pedestrians and drivers. It is estimated that lighting alone accounts for around 3% of the total U.S. electricity consumption. Currently, street lighting applications mostly involve high-intensity discharge (HID) sources such as metal halide lamps and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. As the energy crisis spreads across the world, energy conservation is becoming an urgent priority. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are fourth-generation light sources that have recently appeared as an energy-efficient solution to street lighting. (LEDs are currently used and are gaining credibility in street lighting applications but are only beginning to become viable for roadway lighting applications.) This report presents a comprehensive literature review that covers the current state of technology in LED roadway lighting, detailed comparison of LED roadway luminaires with HID roadway luminaires, test procedures for photometric measurements of roadway lighting installations, and IDOT roadway lighting requirements. LED luminaires provide the advantages of energy efficiency, longer lifetime, good color characteristics, improved mesopic vision conditions, lack of warm-up time, compact size, directional light, reduced light pollution, environment-friendly characteristics, dimming capabilities, breakage and vibration resistance, and more uniform light distribution. The Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY demonstration projects provide good information on the potential benefits of the replacement of HPS streetlights with LED streetlights. However, LEDs are currently not frequently utilized in street lighting applications due to their lower luminous efficacy, higher heat conversion rate, higher installation cost, and issues in obtaining white light. Trade-offs between color correlated temperature and lumen output, and between color shift of LED light sources over time, lumen maintenance (LED life expectancy), and thermal management are the critical issues of LEDs that should be properly addressed in street lighting applications. Because of the significant differences in HID and LED technology, there has been a gap in industry test standards and test procedures for product comparisons and ratings. Thus, ENERGY STAR® criteria, along with other important new standards and test procedures, have been released and continue to be developed. Some institutions also published their own specifications for LED roadway lighting. There is a significant push by the industry to research and develop LED luminaires for street lighting, and this is evidenced in the number and improved characteristics of new products being released by practically every major player in the street lighting sector. Given the clear trend toward the use of LED luminaires in the industry, it is expected that efficient LED luminaires for highway applications will be available in the near future for higher mounting heights and lumen output requirements.
Show Abstract R27-076 FHWA-ICT-12-013 LED Roadway Lighting, Volume 2: Field Evaluations and Software Comparisons Kivanç A. Avrenli, Rahim F. Benekohal, Juan C. Medina 10/1/2012
The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for roadway lighting can potentially save energy costs and reduce the frequency of maintenance. The objective of this study is to explore the current state of the art in LED roadway lighting technology. Three sets of LED roadway luminaires, along with a set of high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires, were selected for field testing. The LED luminaires were manufactured by GE Lighting (Evolve Series, 454239), Relume Lighting (Vue Series, 320-HE), and Cooper Lighting (Ventus Series, VSTA 08). There was generally fair agreement between illuminance measured in the field and data obtained using the lighting analysis software AGi32, except for one of the LEDs. Results showed that the field data and software results for two of the three sets of LED luminaires satisfied the IDOT illuminance design criteria for the test site conditions for a major roadway with medium pedestrian conflict. On the other hand, one of the sets satisfied the average maintained illuminance criterion for low pedestrian conflicts but not for medium pedestrian conflicts. Likewise, the field data for the HPS luminaire did not meet one of the illuminance uniformity criteria (average/minimum) in the test site conditions. Regarding luminance, measurements were collected in the field using a meter that provided accurate average values but not point-by-point maximum and minimum readings, given the greater aperture angle compared to that suggested by LM-50-99. Results from the field showed that the HPS and all three models of LED luminaires met the average IDOT luminance design criteria for the test site conditions (except one luminaire that met only the requirements in the center span). Software results also showed that the LED luminaires mostly satisfied the average luminance criterion for the specified roadway. However, one of the uniformity requirements (maximum/minimum) was not met by two of the LED sets, exceeding the recommended ratios. Lastly, a generic cost-benefit analysis of an LED luminaire was conducted as an example to analyze LED luminaires. A second phase of this project is proposed, including conducting more detailed cycle-life cost analysis for LED roadway luminaires, determining appropriate light loss factors, providing further information for a new IDOT specification, and examining other technologies such as ceramic metal halide, plasma, and induction.
Show Abstract RR-10-9075 ICT-12-008 Fractionated Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (FRAP) as a Coarse Aggregate Replacement in a Ternary Blended Concrete Pavement A.S. Brand, J.R. Roesler, I.L. Al-Qadi, P. Shangguan 8/1/2012
The use of fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement (FRAP) was investigated as a partial replacement (0%, 20%, 35%, and 50%) of virgin coarse aggregate in a ternary blend concrete containing cement, slag, and fly ash. The results demonstrated that up to 50% FRAP may be feasible in a concrete to meet the Illinois Department of Transportation strength requirements of 3500 psi compressive and 650 psi flexural strength at 14 days. The results showed that as the percentage of FRAP in concrete increases, the slump increases, the unit weight decreases, and the air content remains relatively unaffected. The compressive, split tensile, and flexural strength all decrease as the percentage of FRAP increases. Likewise, the elastic and dynamic moduli decrease with increasing FRAP content. The free shrinkage appears somewhat unaffected by FRAP content, although the restrained ring shrinkage strains were reduced for concrete with FRAP. The rapid chloride penetration test showed that the presence of FRAP did not alter the permeability rating of very low to low. A test of freeze/thaw durability indicated that adding FRAP to concrete may reduce the durability, although all specimens still retained a sufficiently valued durability factor after 300 freeze/thaw cycles. The results from fracture testing indicated that adding FRAP to concrete may decrease the fracture toughness, although the initial and total fracture energies were not statistically affected. A test of alkali-silica reactivity revealed that the fine FRAP aggregate is not reactive. Tests with a secondary FRAP source revealed that it may not be necessary to process the FRAP to remove the fine particles. Based on the test results, it is recommended that 50% coarse FRAP may be suitable to meet the strength and durability requirements for paving applications.
Show Abstract R27-069 FHWA-ICT-12-011 Improved Design for Driven Piles on a Pile Load Test Program in Illinois J. Long, A. Anderson 7/1/2012
Dynamic pile testing and one static load test was performed in accordance with ICT project R27-69, “Improved Design for Driven Piles Based on a Pile Load Test Program in Illinois.” The objectives of this project are to (1) increase the maximum nominal required bearing that designers can specify to reduce the number and/or weight of piles, (2) decrease the difference between estimated and driven pile lengths to reduce cutoffs and splice lengths by development of local bias factors for predictive methods used in design, (3) increase reliance of pile setup to increase the factored resistance available to designers, (4) reduce the risk of pile driving damage during construction, and (5) increase the resistance factor (decrease in factor of safety) based on increased data and confidence from load tests in and near Illinois. Project deliverables can be categorized as (1) better prediction methods for stresses during driving, (2) better prediction methods for pile capacities using resistance factors for driven piling based on local calibrations that consider the effects of pile setups, and (3) collections of static and dynamic load test data focused on Illinois soils and geology.
Show Abstract R27-057 FHWA-ICT-12-003 Superiority & Constructability of Fibrous Additives for Bridge Deck Overlays M.A. Alhassan, S.A. Ashur 6/1/2012
Concrete overlays are highly susceptible to cracking due to the large surface area that is exposed to drying, the low water to cement ratio, the environmental exposure and loading conditions, the reflected cracks the underlying bridge deck, and the small thickness of the overlay. This research project investigated the potential benefits of synthetic fibrous additives with regard to the performance of bridge deck concrete overlays. Determining practical dosages and types of synthetic fibers that have the ability to enhance overlay performance, while maintaining convenient constructability without complications during mixing and finishing, was a major mission of this research. The project also outlined critical issues essential for successful and durable overlay applications with minimal cracking and delaminations. Various micro- and macro-fiber combinations were added to the fibrous overlay mixtures, resulting in 13 fibrous mix designs (nine LMC, two MSC, and two FAC). An extensive experimental laboratory program was then conducted to evaluate the major performance characteristics of each overlay mix design in terms of workability and finishability, compressive and flexural strengths, shrinkage, toughness, permeability, and bond strength. For further evaluation of the constructability of fibrous overlay—taking into consideration actual field conditions—demonstration bridges were selected and received fibrous overlays through actual IDOT contracts. Life-cycle cost analyses were also conducted to assess potential savings from incorporating fibrous additives within the concrete overlays. This research is pioneering in terms of using fibrous FAC overlay, which could be a potentially sustainable overlay system for preserving bridge decks with lower cost and minimized adverse environmental impact.
Show Abstract R27-SP18 FHWA-ICT-12-009 Best Practices for Bicycle Trail Pavement Construction and Maintenance in Illinois D. Simpson, W. Buttlar, B. Dempsey 6/1/2012
The main objectives of this report were to provide the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) with guidelines for the structural design of bicycle trail pavement and recommendations for bicycle trail pavement maintenance. A design procedure based on three construction traffic factors and three pavement load levels was developed for Portland cement concrete, hot-mix asphalt, and granular/surface treatment surfaces. The bicycle trail design is determined by the level of construction traffic and the weight characteristics of maintenance vehicles or any other vehicle that regularly operate on the trail. Comparisons were made between the proposed design procedures and the performance of trails surveyed in northern, central, and southern Illinois. The results of the survey indicated that the proposed design procedure should produce a structural trail section that performs well over time. Detailed life cycle cost analyses were conducted for different trail designs and different pavement materials for a design period of 20 years. The analyses showed that relative costs were influenced by surface type and maintenance strategies that were required based on the particular surface type used.
Show Abstract R27-037 FHWA-ICT-12-002 Impact of High RAP Contents on Structural and Performance Properties of Asphalt Mixtures I.L. Al-Qadi, Q. Aurangzeb, S.H. Carpenter, W.J. Pine, J. Trepanier 6/1/2012
Currently, highway agencies in Illinois are exploring the feasibility of using of higher amounts of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in asphalt mixtures. Concerns about variability in aggregate gradation and higher stiffness of aged RAP binder have limited this use, however. This research project was designed to characterize the performance of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) with high amounts of RAP and to identify any special considerations that must be met to utilize these higher RAP contents. Two material sources from two districts were used to prepare eight 3/4-in nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) N90 binder mix designs. The mix designs included a control mix with 0% RAP and three HMAs with 30%, 40%, and 50% RAP for each district. A base asphalt binder (PG 64-22) was used in the mix design process; a single-bumped binder (PG 58-22) and a double-bumped binder (PG 58-28) were also used to prepare specimens for performance testing. The tests conducted on the HMAs were moisture susceptibility, flow number, complex modulus, beam fatigue, semi-circular bending, and wheel tracking. All tested HMAs with RAP performed equal to or better than the mixtures prepared with virgin aggregate. The study found that HMAs with high RAP content (up to 50%) can be designed with desired volumetrics. RAP fractionation proved to be very effective. Asphalt binder-grade bumping is vital for HMAs with 30% RAP content and above.
Show Abstract ICT-12-001 ICT-12-001 Short-Term Performance of Modified Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) Produced with Warm Mix Additives I.L. Al-Qadi, J. Baek, Z. Leng, H. Wang, M. Doyen, J. Kern, S.L. Gillen 1/1/2012
The short-term performance of the stone matrix asphalt (SMA) prepared with various warm-mix techniques (EvothermTM 3G, Sasobit®, and foamed asphalt) was conducted using extensive laboratory tests and on-site stiffness measurement. The laboratory tests included the complex modulus, flow number, loaded wheel track, indirect tension (IDT) creep and strength, and semi-circular beam (SCB) fracture. In the laboratory tests, plant-produced mixes were compacted in the laboratory with and without reheating, and performance tests were conducted at various curing time periods after compaction. In addition, light weight deflectometer (LWD) tests were conducted to monitor the in-situ pavement stiffness development of the warm SMA field sections. This study concludes that SMA containing different warm mix asphalt (WMA) additives show comparable performance with the control SMA. Both laboratory and field test results do not indicate any evidence that a longer curing time is needed before allowing traffic on warm SMA pavements. The mixtures containing WMA additives show similar variations in mixture properties due to curing time compared to the control SMA. The reheating process causes asphalt mixtures to have greater modulus, tensile strength, and rutting resistance, but smaller creep compliance and fracture resistance. The aging effect due to reheating is more significant on the control mixture than the three warm SMA mixtures due to a higher reheating temperature. An approach to determine the time for opening paved road to traffic is proposed for the tested materials.
Show Abstract P-2011-01 ICT-11-096 In-Place Hot Mix Asphalt Density Estimation Using Ground Penetrating Radar I.L. Al-Qadi, Z. Leng, A. Larkin 12/1/2011
In-situ asphalt mixture density is critically important to the performance of flexible airport pavements: density that is too high, or too low, may cause early pavement distresses. Traditionally, two methods have been commonly used for in-situ asphalt mixture density measurement: laboratory testing on field-extracted cores and in-situ nuclear gauge testing. However, both these methods have limitations. The coring method damages pavement, causes traffic interruption, and provides only limited data at discrete locations. The nuclear gauge method also provides limited data measurement. Moreover, it requires a license for the operators because it uses radioactive material. To overcome the limitations of these traditional methods, this study proposes to develop a nondestructive method of using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to measure in-situ asphalt mixture density accurately, continuously, and rapidly.
Show Abstract R27-087 FHWA-ICT-11-094-1 Implementing Pavement Management Systems for Local Agencies: State-of-the-Art/State-of-the-Practice (Implementation Guide) A. Wolters, K. Zimmerman, K. Schattler, A. Rietgraf 12/1/2011
Pavement management systems have proven to be an effective tool for management of large state and metropolitan pavement networks. Although smaller agencies no doubt have similar operational and organizational needs and face the same general challenges as larger agencies, there are still many county and municipal agencies in Illinois that have not implemented pavement management systems. Regardless of whether this is due to the lack of adequate resources to establish the initial database and set up the system, or whether there is a general lack of technical expertise to implement the program, local agencies are in need of a methodology for effectively managing the various components of their pavement network. As a part of this research two documents were produced including a state-of-the-art/state-of-the-practice synthesis and a set of guidelines to assist local agencies in selecting and implementing a pavement management system that is suitable for their needs. This synthesis document provides details on pavement management systems in terms of data collection methodologies and rating systems, software programs, and local agency implementations in the U.S. Also documented are the results of a current practice survey disseminated to local agencies in Illinois, as well as case studies of selected agencies in Illinois that have a pavement management system implemented in their jurisdictions.
Show Abstract R27-087 FHWA-ICT-11-094 Implementing Pavement Management Systems for Local Agencies: State-of-the-State/State-of-the-Practice A. Wolters, K. Zimmerman, K. Schattler, A. Rietgraf 12/1/2011
Pavement management systems have proven to be an effective tool for management of large state and metropolitan pavement networks. Although smaller agencies no doubt have similar operational and organizational needs and face the same general challenges as larger agencies, there are still many county and municipal agencies in Illinois that have not implemented pavement management systems. Regardless of whether this is due to the lack of adequate resources to establish the initial database and set up the system, or whether there is a general lack of technical expertise to implement the program, local agencies are in need of a methodology for effectively managing the various components of their pavement network. As a part of this research two documents were produced including a state-of-the-art/state-of-the-practice synthesis and a set of guidelines to assist local agencies in selecting and implementing a pavement management system that is suitable for their needs. This synthesis document provides details on pavement management systems in terms of data collection methodologies and rating systems, software programs, and local agency implementations in the U.S. Also documented are the results of a current practice survey disseminated to local agencies in Illinois, as well as case studies of selected agencies in Illinois that have a pavement management system implemented in their jurisdictions.
Show Abstract R27-008 FHWA-ICT-07-010 Evaluation of Hot-Mix Asphalt Sampling Techniques M. Elseifi 8/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-SP16 FHWA-ICT-11-095 Evaluation of Horizontal Directional Drilling Y. Hashash and J. Javier 11/1/2011
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is defined as “A steerable system for the installation of pipes, conduits, and cables in a shallow arc using a surfaced launched drilling rig. Traditionally HDD is applied to large scale crossings such as rivers in which a fluid filled pilot hole is drilled without rotating the drill string, and this is then enlarged by a wash over pipe and back reamer to the size required by the product.” (Trenchless Data Service 2000). This technology has been in existence since the 1970’s. It is currently an efficient, safe, cost effective method for highway bores and is the current industry standard for trenchless technology for bores between 2 and 48-inch diameters and 600 ft to 1800 ft in length. However, according to the manual for Accommodation of Utilities on Right-of-way of the Illinois State Highway System - 1992, it is currently prohibited under state highways for bores over 6 inches. Bores of greater size must be done by the jack and bore method. The manual is being re-written and will include a provision for an HDD option, but it will not define the parameters under which approval can be granted. The objective is to study the effects of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) for utilities under pavement and within the right of way of the State of Illinois in order to aide in the writing of the policy and procedures for administering permit requests for HDD. This report covers Phase I of the work described under the scope of work section.
Show Abstract R27-086 FHWA-ICT-11-089 An Expert Systems Approach to Highway Construction Scheduling D. Slattery, K. Slattery, and R. Bruce 9/1/2011
The goal of this project was to assist design engineers in developing more realistic construction schedules for a wide variety of IDOT projects. The research involved conducting in-depth interviews with subject matter experts in highway construction firms; reviewing the scholarly literature and published research on expert systems in highway construction scheduling and productivity rates for highway construction activities; analyzing historical weather records published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to determine the probable periods during which temperature-sensitive construction operations could be conducted; and synthesizing the expert knowledge developed from all sources in a software tool to assist designers in developing schedules for a variety of typical highway construction activities. The report includes the user manual and documentation for a computer program, the Illinois Construction Scheduling Expert System (ICSES), developed using Visual Studio 2008. ICSES provides 12 road and bridge project templates, each containing typical controlling items and their sequential relationships, links controlling items to the schedule using historical temperature trends at the project location, and provides expert guidance on how to select appropriate production rates for controlling items. The output provides a bar chart schedule with completion date, number of calendar days and working days and tabulates the Estimate of Time Required.
Show Abstract R27-048 FHWA-ICT-11-091 Travel Demand Modeling for Small & Medium Size MPOs in Illinois M. Ullah, U. Molakatalla, R. Morocoima-Black, A. Mohideen 9/1/2011
Travel demand modeling is an important tool in the transportation planning community. It helps forecast travel characteristics into the future at various planning levels such as state, region and corridor. Using travel demand modeling to evaluate different situations (changes in land use and/or transportation network) would allow Metropolitan Planning Organizations’ (MPOs) staff make educated decisions regarding growth and improvements to their respective regional transportation networks. Several small (50,000< population <200,000) and medium (200,000 <population <500,000) sized MPOs in the state of Illinois utilize TDM for different transportation planning purposes, most commonly, the Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) and Transportation Improvement Program (TIP). Some of the small and medium sized MPOs in the state of Illinois are unable to utilize TDM tools primarily due to lack of available resources and guidelines at the regional and state level. This study sought to establish the framework necessary for the development, maintenance, and application of small and medium sized MPOs’ TDMs. It is crucial for the local, regional, and state agencies to play a collaborative role in the transportation planning process. This study established a framework for developing travel demand models at the MPO regional level considering their limited available resources. Special attention was given to simplicity and accuracy of the travel model development process. Extensive calibration and validation checks were recommended, as accuracy of travel forecasting is of high importance. As an important part of this study, a statewide group, the Illinois Modeling Users Group (IL-MUG) was created to support, set standards and guide the development, implementation, and maintenance of travel demand models in small and medium sized MPOs in Illinois.
Show Abstract R27-056 FHWA-ICT-11-092 Transfer & Development Lengths in Prestressed Self-Consolidating Concrete Bridge Box and I-Girders B. Andrawes and A. Pozolo 9/1/2011
Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is a workable yet stable concrete which flows easily and consolidates under its own weight. Its unique properties can substantially reduce the labor required to pour complex or heavily-reinforced structural members. Over the past decade, the American precast industry has taken significant strides to adopt SCC in commercial projects, though concern about early-age bond behavior has limited the material’s application in prestressed members. A general need remains for further research on the bond properties of SCC in full-scale prestressed members. The wide array of specimen types and SCC mixture designs utilized in practice further underscores this need. To explore the application of SCC in Illinois bridge construction, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored a three-phase study investigating the bond behavior of steel strands in pretensioned bridge box and I-girders. In the first phase, 56 pullout tests were conducted to compare the performance of seven-wire strands embedded in SCC to that of strands in normally-consolidated concrete (NCC) blocks. In the second phase, transfer lengths of prestressing strands in two 28-ft. SCC hollow box girders and two 48-ft. SCC I-girders were determined experimentally. In the third phase, development lengths of strands in the four girders were determined through a series of iterative flexural tests. This report details the experimental program for the study’s three phases and compares results to current requirements of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The results of this study may prove fundamental to the safe application of SCC within the state of Illinois’ prestressed concrete industry.
Show Abstract R27-026 FHWA-ICT-11-093 Drop Weight Testing of Brass Breakaway Couplings D. Kuchma, C. Hahin, and C. Hart 9/1/2011
This was the first phase of an investigation to determine the suitability of free-cutting brass couplings for use in minimizing vehicular damage and driver or passenger injury when light poles are impacted. Breakaway couplings are required by Federal regulation to fracture when a modest size sedan travelling at 20 miles per hour or greater impacts a supported light pole. The required limit of impact deceleration that would be experienced by persons in this vehicle is limited to 5 m/s [16.4 ft/sec] at 20 and 60 mph. These brass couplings are intended to replace currently used aluminum or steel couplings, which could potentially save significant resources for the State of Illinois, as well as other states. This investigation used drop weight testing on a short strike tube that was attached to the couplings and then to a concrete pedestal which simulated an actual concrete foundation. The focus of the drop weight testing was to determine the size and depth of grooves needed to be cut into the brass couplings to provide the desired breakaway performance. This testing compared a variety of designs produced by the Illinois DOT with the Transpo SPM 4100 high strength steel coupling which had already been approved by the Federal Highway Administration. The test program used a rigid steel cylinder and thick base plate which simulated an actual light pole. Because of the nature of the drop weight test set up, certain variables, including the weight of the light pole and luminaires, its stiffness and radius of gyration, and stiffness of the impact point in an actual crash, could not be simulated. However, these variables were tested later in full scale pendulum impact tests in the second phase of this project.
Show Abstract ICT-11-090 ICT-11-090 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Between Warm SMA and Conventional SMA Z. Leng, I.L. Al-Qadi 9/1/2011
This report presents the comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) between warm stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and conventional SMA. Specifically, the study evaluated and compared the life cycle environmental and economic performances of two mixtures: a warm SMA binder course mixture with a chemical additive and a control hot SMA binder course mixture. Both of these mixtures were utilized as part of a complete overlay project on the Veterans Memorial Expressway (I-355) near Chicago as part of the Illinois Tollway system. The results of this study indicate that the warm SMA provides significant environmental benefits compared to the control hot SMA. When the mixing temperature was decreased from 325 to 280 oF (168 to 138 oC), the overall environmental impact of the material, production, transportation, and placement was reduced by 6.4% due to the use of warm mix additive. More environmental benefits can be expected if the mixing temperature is further lowered. It was also concluded that using warm mix additive slightly increases the initial construction cost of SMA pavement. However, the warm SMA overlay allows for traffic to be opened earlier, so the user cost caused by traffic delay is reduced, and the total economic cost of the warm SMA is lower than that of the control SMA. In addition, the warm SMA allows for the use of a higher percentage of RAP because of less binder aging. With a 10% increase in RAP usage, the initial construction cost of the warm SMA becomes 3.5% lower than that of the control SMA. The overall performances of the control SMA and the warm SMA were compared by calculating a weighted environmental and economic score and the total cost (environmental, agency, and user costs). Both the weighted score and total cost data show that the warm SMA provides better overall performance compared to the control SMA. Therefore, besides being more environmentally friendly, the warm SMA is also economically competitive compared to the control SMA. This study didn’t include the cost benefits of the warm SMA due to an extended paving season and longer hauling distance because these benefits are difficult to quantify. In addition, the warm SMA may reduce the risk of poor compaction during construction, which ensures long-term pavement performance, and therefore saves costs related to maintenance and rehabilitation.
Show Abstract R27-050 FHWA-ICT-11-086 Senior Travelers’ Trip Chaining Behavior: Survey Results and Data Analysis K. Mohammadian, M. Frignani, J. Auld 8/1/2011
The research team conducted a survey of travel and activity scheduling behavior to better understand senior citizens’ trip chaining behavior in the Chicago metropolitan area’s most populous counties. The team used an internet-based, prompted recall activity-travel survey using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to collect activity-travel diaries and other necessary information. This survey was conducted with 112 people living in 101 households in Northeastern Illinois’ Cook, DuPage, Lake, and Will Counties. Because aging is a growing concern among transportation planners, this survey focused especially on the elderly population, with approximately half of the survey sample consisting of elderly households and the remainder of non-elderly households. Each respondent within these households was asked to carry a portable GPS device ideally for 14 consecutive days and upload the collected data to a website at the end of each day to fill in their activity-travel survey questionnaires. The results suggest that GPS surveys have an improved ability to capture trips that are frequently under-reported; the use of prompted recall provides valuable data about the activity planning and scheduling process itself, which is not found in traditional surveys. Analysis of the decision-making process from the collected data reveals that some aspects of elderly travel behavior are intrinsically distinct from those of the younger population. Results indicate that while age does not affect some aspects of activity-travel behavior, it does affect such aspects as planning horizons, trip flexibility, and trip chaining practices. This study’s results can therefore be used to plan more efficient transit services targeting senior travelers and may help change their attitudes toward public transportation.
Show Abstract R27-064 FHWA-ICT-11-088 Development of A Highway Incident Management Operational and Training Guide For Incident Responders in Illinois H. Zhou, R. Fries, M. Williamson, Z. Tian, and B. Vaughn 8/1/2011
Each year highway traffic incidents, such as crashes, place responders on and beside roadways with dangerous high-speed traffic. The unexpected conditions of an incident scene have the potential to surprise unsuspecting or inattentive drivers, possibly causing an additional crash, termed a secondary incident. Because responder safety is a key priority of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation, and because secondary incidents are frequently more severe than the initial incident, ICT researchers, guided by a technical review panel (TRP) of members from multiple incident response agencies, studied ways to improve responder safety in Illinois through a training program. A survey of incident response agencies throughout Illinois was conducted to assess the current level and type of incident management training provided to each group of responders. The research team reviewed the current training materials at federal, state, regional, and organizational levels. Based on the statewide survey, comprehensive literature reviews, and inputs from the TRP members, a training program was developed. The training intends to provide the necessary inter-disciplinary knowledge to incident responders in Illinois. The main objective of the training is to keep responders safe, prevent secondary incidents, and reduce fatalities in Illinois, while reducing non-recurring congestion caused by the incidents. The training includes approximately 6.5 hours of classroom time and is divided into eight modules, each providing valuable training to incident responders. The training program was pilot tested in two regions of Illinois prior to finalization. The pilot training sessions received very positive feedback from over 50 participants.
Show Abstract R27-038 FHWA-ICT-11-087 High Plastic Concrete Temperature Specifications for Paving Mixtures J. Popovics, J. Roesler, C. Peterson, A. Salas, S. Ham 8/1/2011
This report documents a study performed for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) regarding concrete roadway construction in hot weather. The main objective in this project is to develop improved specifications and procedures with respect to monitoring and maintaining plastic concrete temperatures to assure near and long-term concrete quality in the state of Illinois. An additional objective is to develop a better understanding of the effects of higher temperatures on fresh and hardened concrete properties of roadway concrete and to document any new findings.
Show Abstract R27-059 FHWA-ICT-11-084 Evaluation of Performance of Solar Powered Flashing Beacons at Severe Temperature Conditions A. Hajbabaie, R. Benekohal, J. Medina 6/1/2011
This report contains the results of 34 tests for JSF and 26 tests for Carmanah solar-powered flashing beacons operating in mild cold temperature (-6.6 oC), severe cold temperature (-20 oC), and hot temperature (+70 oC) conditions. In addition, it contains two tests for JSF modules and two for Carmanah operating under “real world” conditions. In mild temperature condition, red and yellow modules of JSF flashed in MUTCD pattern for at least 11 and 8.5 days, respectively. The red and yellow modules of Carmanah flashed in MUTCD pattern for at least 11 and 8 days, respectively. Reducing the temperature to -20 0C resulted in a significant decrease in the duration of flashing in MUTCD pattern for JSF modules; however, that duration did not decrease for Carmanah. Red and yellow modules of JSF flashed in MUTCD pattern for at least 18 and 24 hours in severe cold temperature condition. For Carmanah, red and yellow modules lasted in MUTCD flashing pattern for at least 14 and 11.5 days, respectively. In hot temperature condition, red and yellow modules of JSF flashed in MUTCD pattern for at least 6.5 and 5.5 days, respectively. Red and yellow modules of Carmanah lasted in MUTCD flashing pattern for at least 8.5 and 7 days, respectively. The “real world” condition test indicated that in certain conditions (e.g. solar panels covered with snow), the solar panels may not be able to generate enough power for the LEDs to keep them flashing in MUTCD pattern. In this condition, the flashing pattern changes to a power saver mode. The red modules of JSF and Carmanah were visible when the distance was at least 1500 ft in a sunny and very bright day. The yellow modules of JSF and Carmanah were visible up to a distance of about 1000 ft in the same day. If solar panels are accidently disconnected when the modules are outdoors and batteries are fully charged, the JSF and Carmanah modules were visible at a distance of 700 ft, in a cloudy but bright day.
Show Abstract R27-SP17 FHWA-ICT-11-085 A Study on Warm-Mix Asphalt I. Al-Qadi, J. Kern, J. Meister 6/1/2011
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) had an immediate need to evaluate the performance characteristics of new asphalt mixtures. The new mixtures included warm mix asphalt (WMA), stone-matrix asphalt (SMA) with recycled asphalt shingles (RAS), and asphalt mixtures containing alternate friction aggregates (diabase, quartzite, and granite). The object of this project was to compare these new mixes and to provide IDOT with guidance on the applicability of the mix designs when implementing these mixtures in the future.
Show Abstract R27-074 FHWA-ICT-11-082 Green-Friendly Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Interstate Rest Areas K. El-Rayes, L. Liu, M. Abdullah 6/1/2011
This report presents the findings of a research project that studied and developed a list of �green friendly� best management practices (BMPs) for Illinois interstate rest areas. The objectives of this project are to (1) develop energy and cost baseline data for the 53 rest area buildings in Illinois by gathering utility use statements and other pertinent data for a one-year period for each building, and utilize the data to compute the carbon footprint of each building; (2) perform onsite assessment of existing conditions in three selected rest areas; (3) conduct a comprehensive literature review on green design and sustainable construction, available energy saving alternatives, LEED certification requirements, and decision-making and optimization techniques that can be used for optimizing upgrade decision of rest area buildings; (4) investigate potential energy saving alternatives for the selected rest areas and study their cost savings and environmental impact; (5) conduct life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the suggested green friendly measures and generate a report detailing their overall costs and payback periods; (6) investigate the requirements and possibilities for the rest areas to achieve LEED certification under the LEED rating system for existing buildings; (7) develop a decision support tool (DST) to identify optimal upgrade decisions for rest area buildings; and (8) develop recommendations for upgrading the three selected rest areas. To achieve these objectives, the research team carried out six major tasks: (1) developed energy cost baseline data and carbon footprint for each Illinois rest area; (2) performed onsite assessment for three selected rest areas; (3) conducted a comprehensive literature review; (4) identified potential green-friendly best management practices; (5) developed a decision support tool (DST) for optimizing LEED upgrade decisions of rest area buildings; and (6) developed recommendations for upgrading the three selected rest areas.
Show Abstract R27-058 FHWA-ICT-11-083 Evaluation of Sensys Wireless Detection System: Year-After Evaluation and Off-Center Sensors J. Medina, R. Benekohal, A. Hajbabaie 6/1/2011
This is the third and final report of the evaluation of the Sensys wireless vehicle detection system at a signalized intersection and a railroad grade crossing. It presents the system performance after one year of its initial installation, and when additional off-center sensors were installed at the stop bar zones of the signalized intersection. Results from the signalized intersection showed no significant changes one year after the system was in use, except for a decrease in the frequency of false calls due to vehicles in adjacent lanes (from a range of 5.6%-7.6%, to a range of 0.8%-2.4%). At the stop bar zones, multiple calls generated by a single vehicle remained similar (between 7% and 10.2%), and no missed, stuck-on, or dropped calls were found. Also, the detection performance at the advance zones did not change. Missed vehicles ranged between 0.6% and 6.1%, most of which were traveling between lanes, and false calls were lower than 2%. At the railroad grade crossing, the performance of the Sensys system after one year did not show significant changes. Stuck-on calls due to trains were rare and occurred at a rate of about one occurrence for every 150 trains. False calls in the left-turn lane due to vehicles in the opposite direction remained high (more than 30%, caused by trucks and smaller vehicles), and missed calls were lower than 1%. The installation of sensors off-center relative to the loop detectors at the stop bar zones of the signalized intersection (close to the leading edge of the loops), resulted in lower number of multiple calls from a single vehicle (from 7%-10.2% down to 2%-3.3%). However, it did not improve on the frequency of false calls due to vehicles in the adjacent lanes.
Show Abstract R27-058 FHWA-ICT-11-081 Evaluation of Sensys Wireless Vehicle Detection System: Results from Adverse Weather Conditions J. Medina, R. Benekohal, A. Hajbabaie 3/1/2011
The performance of the Sensys wireless vehicle detection system was evaluated under adverse weather conditions (winter and rain) at a signalized intersection and in close proximity to the railroad tracks at a grade crossing. At the intersection stop bar zones, the overall frequency of false calls due to vehicles in the adjacent lanes ranged from 7.7% to 15.4% per lane in the winter data and between 2.6% and 6.2% in the rain data. In addition, the frequency of multiple activations due to a single vehicle (flickering false calls) ranged from 4.2% to 7.2% in the winter data and from 5% to 7.7% in the rain data. There were only seven stuck-on calls, two missed calls, and no dropped calls. At the intersection advance zones, frequency of missed vehicles traveling between the lanes ranged between 0.4% and 5.4% in the winter condition, and between 0.8% and 9.7% in the rain condition. A low percentage of vehicles traveling inside the marked lane (0%-1.2% per lane) were missed. False calls ranged on average from 1% to 4%. No stuck-on calls or dropped calls were found at the advance zones. At the railroad grade crossing, the trains generated multiple activations in the Sensys detectors as they passed the crossing. After they departed, the sensors terminated the activations except in a few cases, where the calls remained stuck-on for periods of time. In addition, false calls were the most common type of detection error, which represented 56% to 60% of the total number of calls in the left-turn lane, and 13% to 14% in the through lane. Most of the false calls in the left-turn lane were caused by vehicles traveling in the opposing direction.
Show Abstract R27-059 FHWA-ICT-10-069 Evaluation of Performance of Solar Powered Flashing Beacons at Room Temperature Conditions A. Hajbabaie, R.F. Benekohal, J.C. Medina 4/1/2010
This report presents the results of five tests on JSF flashing beacons and the results of 10 tests on Carmanah flashing beacons under room temperature conditions. Each test determined the time each module flashed in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) flashing pattern, the battery voltage over time, and the outputted light intensity over time. The results of the tests showed that for JSF flashing beacons, the voltage drops gradually over time. The red color of JSF flashed in the MUTCD flashing pattern for at least 24 days. The yellow color of JSF beacon flashed in the MUTCD flashing rate for at least 16 days. For both colors of JSF beacons, the outputted light intensity remained at an almost constant level over time at 22-27 foot-candles for the red color and 25-30 foot-candles for the yellow color. In the fall months, the JSF flashing beacons needed around three days to get fully charged. The six uninterrupted tests conducted on Carmanah modules proved the company’s claim that both modules would flash in the MUTCD flashing pattern for one day and then switch to the power saving mode if they do not receive any charge from the solar panel. On the other hand, the results of the four interrupted tests revealed that the red color of Carmanah beacon can flash in the MUTCD flashing pattern for 11.5 to 12.5 days. The yellow color of Carmanah can flash in the MUTCD pattern for 8.6 to 10.1 days. The Carmanah modules produced a high light intensity of approximately 100 ft-candle for red and 160 ft-candle for yellow at the beginning of the discharge period, but the intensity for the red module decreased to 20 ft-candle in 8 to 10 days and to 40 ft-candle for yellow in six to eight days. In the fall, Carmanah flashing beacons need around six days to become fully charged
Show Abstract R27-058 FHWA-ICT-09-059 Evaluation of Sensys Wireless Vehicle Detection System: Results from the First Three Months J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, A. Hajbabaie 11/1/2009
The Sensys Wireless Vehicle Detection System uses wireless magnetometers embedded in the pavement that communicate without wires to an access point connected to a standard detector rack. This research evaluated the detection performance of this system at two locations: a signalized intersection with three approaching lanes (at stop bar and advance zones), and a railroad grade crossing, as a potential backup option for crossing gates applications. Video images and the time of activation/deactivation of the sensors and loop detectors (placed at exactly the same location as the sensors), were collected after the system was installed by Sensys Networks, yielding some initial results (initial setup). Subsequently, Sensys Networks was provided with the initial results (false, missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls) and were allowed to readjust the system (modified setup) so that the best performance could be obtained. Thus, this report includes results from the initial and the modified setups at the two selected locations. At the railroad location, false calls due to adjacent vehicles ranged from 12.1% to 53.7%, missed calls were low (<1%), and stuck-on calls due to trains and cars were rare (but up to 30 min long). At the signalized intersection, false calls were more frequent at the stop bar (13.5% to 19.6%) than at the advance zones (0.7% to 2.4%). Missed calls were low at the stop bar (<0.5%), and ranged between 0.9% and 10% at the advance zones. Stuck-on calls and dropped calls were very rare and only found at stop bar zones.
Show Abstract R27-040 FHWA-ICT-11-078 Safety Impacts of Highway Shoulder Attributes in Illinois R. Bamzai, Y. Lee, Z. Li 4/1/2011
The single greatest category of highway vehicle crashes is run-off-the-road incidents. Significant material differences and elevation changes in shoulder edges pose a potential safety hazard when a vehicle leaves the travel way. Shoulder paving is recognized as a positive countermeasure to reduce a shoulder drop-off hazard. This report documents an in-depth analysis of safety impacts of shoulder attributes using data on Illinois State-maintained highways for period 2000-2006. Preliminary data analysis is first conducted to establish the correlation between shoulder-related crashes by type and severity category and shoulder attributes such as shoulder material type and outside paved shoulder width. Then, an analytical procedure is developed and applied to the Illinois data for assessing safety impacts of shoulder paving and prioritizing highway segments for shoulder paving using the Empirical Bayesian (EB) analysis and cross-sectional analysis approaches and an optimization model. While this procedure does not eliminate the need for human judgment, it could help experts make better decisions using optimization techniques. The findings are expected to help Illinois Department of Transportation (DOT) update current design manual.
Show Abstract R27-062 FHWA-ICT-11-079 Proceedings of the Material Quality Testing Risk Assessment and Multi-State Peer Exchange T. Murphy, L. Taccola, A. Murphyao 3/1/2011
The primary objectives of this study were to compare the practices of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) with those of other state and federal agencies to share advice, best practices, and lessons learned, and to plan for the best possible Quality Control and Quality Assurance (QC / QA) and risk assessment procedures as IDOT moves forward in today’s changing business climate. This report outlines the incentives behind this research project, documents relevant literature related to QC / QA, summarizes the discussions of the Peer Exchange, and provides recommendations for IDOT based on a synthesis of the foregoing research items.
Show Abstract R27-071 FHWA-ICT-11-080 Field Implementation and Evaluation of the Simple Cost-Effective Scour Sensor F. Ansari 3/1/2011
Bridge scour, the erosion of stream bed materials around the bridge foundation, endangers many of the bridges that cross over water. Over the years, a number of scour sensors have been developed to determine the extent of scour, especially following major floods. Many of these systems are either too complicated, expensive, or not efficient. However, it is important to ascertain the safety of bridges after major floods in an expeditious manner. Therefore, in a previous ICT study (R27-35), researchers developed a simple and highly accurate scour sensor. That initial study encompassed laboratory proof of concept tests and small scale field trials.
Show Abstract R27-SP15 FHWA-ICT-11-077 Snowplow Simulator Training Study T. O'Rourke 1/1/2011
This report evaluates simulation training of IDOT snowplow operators to improve IDOT snow and ice removal operations. Specifically, it assesses a drivers’ evaluation of snowplow simulation training immediately after training in fall 2009 and again after the snow season in spring 2010. The report includes the supervisors’ assessment of the simulator training after the snow season and a description of conventional training at the district level. Also included are an estimated cost analysis of the simulation training and the estimated cost of behind-the-wheel training, a review of the accident records of snowplow drivers who participated and who did not participate in the simulation training, and a review of reports from other states on simulator training. Results show favorable driver evaluations after the fall training but less positive evaluations after the snow season. Supervisor evaluation of simulation training was generally favorable. As presently conducted, simulation training appears more costly than conventional training. Finally, and consistent with most of the literature, no conclusive findings on driver performance were found when comparing drivers whose training included simulation to drivers whose training did not include simulation. Multiple reasons for this finding are provided in the report. Suggestions for future study are provided.
Show Abstract R27-063 FHWA-ICT-11-076 Evaluation of the Long-Term Durability of Joints Cut Using Early-Entry Saws on Rigid Pavements J. Krstulovich, T. Van Dam, K. Smith 1/1/2011
Early-entry sawing is an attractive operation to expedite the construction of jointed concrete pavements; however, there are some concerns that the early-entry sawing may compromise the pavement’s long-term performance. The Illinois Department of Transportation sponsored this study as an initial effort to investigate the feasibility of using early-entry sawing on rigid highway pavements in terms of expected joint durability. The joint performance as a function of cut depth and time was also considered. The investigation of early-entry sawing was integrated into an active construction project on Illinois Route 59 in Plainfield, IL featuring three 300-ft test sections (a control section cut to a depth of one-third of the slab thickness using a conventional wet saw, a test section cut to a depth of one-third of the slab thickness using an early-entry dry saw, and a test section cut to a nominal depth of 1.25 inches using an early-entry dry saw). During construction, paving and sawing operations were observed and documented; of particular interest were the sawing operations, during which signs of surface scarring, joint raveling, and slab edge breakouts were recorded and the extent of sawing-related damage was subjectively assessed. In addition to general pavement construction observations, climatic conditions were also monitored, along with pavement temperatures. Ambient climate conditions and slab mixture and temperature data were used to perform a HIPERPAV® analysis to assess the potential for early-age cracking. Compressive strength cylinders were also cast and tested at 3, 7, and 28 days. Additionally, cores were retrieved from joints throughout the test site (6 cores from each test cell), and a battery of durability tests were conducted, including petrographic analysis, freeze-thaw testing, and susceptibility to salt scaling. Overall observations from the field construction and findings from the laboratory testing program are summarized in this report.
Show Abstract R27-033 FHWA-ICT-10-075 Queue And User’s Costs In Highway Work Zones R.F. Benekohal, H. Ramezani, and K.A. Avrenli 9/1/2010
The IDOT Bureau of Design and Environment (BDE) Manual requires that traffic control plans for freeway reconstruction projects include a queuing analysis to determine the anticipated traffic backups in work zones. Queue length and delay calculations rely on the estimation of capacity and operating speed. In this study, field data were collected from five work zones in Illinois. Thirteen data sets were extracted from the field data. Each data set represents a particular traffic condition at a given site. A work zone capacity value was suggested for each traffic condition based on the field data. The suggested capacity for the sites with speed limit of 45 mph ranges from 1200 pcphpl (passenger cars per hour per lane) to 1550 pcphpl. The 1200 value was suggested for a traffic condition with flagger and queue, and 1550 value was for a traffic condition with no work activity, no speed management treatment and no queue. A capacity of 1600 pcphpl was suggested for a site with speed limit of 55 mph, dynamic speed feedback sign, no work activity, and no queue; and a capacity value of 1750 pcphplwas recommended for a short-distance work zone with speed limit of 55 mph, no work activity, and no queue. Using the field data, speed-flow curves were proposed for: work zones with speed limit of 45 mph and a flagger, work zones with speed limit of 45 mph and without a flagger, and work zones with speed limit of 55 mph. Each of these models can be adjusted to non-ideal conditions. Methods to estimate the length of moving queue, delay and users’ cost were developed to handle the cases where a demand higher than capacity causes queue. The queue length and delay were estimated for all the data sets using the proposed method. The results also were compared with the QuickZone 2 outputs. When the arrival volume in an interval was less than the capacity of the interval, the QuickZone2 did not yield any delay or queue length even though there was congestion and delay in a part of the interval.
Show Abstract R27-005 FHWA-ICT-10-073 Bus Riding on Shoulders P. Thakuriah, P. Metaxatos, and A. Mohammadian 8/1/2010
Bus on shoulder (BOS) operations have been ongoing in several locations across the United States and abroad. Public transit buses in the designated highway and arterial shoulders are generally allowed to travel up to 15 mph faster than traffic in the general lanes, but no more than 35 mph. These operations are typically undertaken to give public transit riders a faster and more reliable traveling experience when highway and arterial general traffic lanes are congested. The research team reviewed the literature on safety and operational aspects of shoulder use and the ways in which shoulder use has been incorporated as a way to manage congestion in several regions. They also interviewed primary stakeholders, who might be involved in planning and operating a BOS system in Northeastern Illinois and analyzed their comments. They found that highway shoulders have been used for a variety of purposes in many regions over time with proper precautions and appropriate authorization, including operating buses on them to bypass congestion in the general traffic lanes. In this study, the investigators show that BOS operations have been undertaken as part of congestion management strategies in many regions. Although Illinois stakeholders have raised many concerns, it appears that BOS operations are feasible for Northeastern Illinois, although much will depend on the selection of the right highway segments, bus driver education and training, awareness among motorists, and various other strategies that should be addressed. Cost and legal factors governing BOS operations should also be addressed. BOS operations may effectively work in Northeastern Illinois, if implemented as part of an overall congestion management strategy and after being studied as a part of a year-long demonstration project to identify the best ways to operate.
Show Abstract R27-072 FHWA-ICT-10-072 Improving the Safety of Moving Lane Closures – Phase II D. Steele and W. Vavrik 8/1/2010
Moving lane closures are an increasingly utilized and potentially hazardous traffic control procedure for highway maintenance and operations activities. To improve the safety of moving lane closures for workers and motorists, this study investigated driver behavior around and in moving lane closures and the effect of different components of current traffic control scenarios, including the number, configuration, and spacing of shadow vehicles, and the effect of various traffic control devices and sign messages. This report presents the study’s Phase II efforts, including a series of large group meetings, an expert panel review of the findings, and recommendations for revisions to traffic control standards to improve the safety of moving lane closures for highway workers and the traveling public. The Phase I findings, including the results of full-scale field experiments, were reported previously.
Show Abstract R27-067 FHWA-ICT-10-071 2009 National Safety Performance Function Summit Y. Ouyang 7/1/2010
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the first National Safety Performance Function Summit on July 29 and 30, 2009, in Chicago, Illinois. The goal of this summit was to disseminate information and facilitate discussions on various ongoing and emerging activities related to the development and implementation of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). This report summarizes the attendee statistics, the conference program, the main activities (including 32 presentations and eight discussion sessions), and the attendees’ feedback. Prospects for follow-up activities are also discussed.
Show Abstract R27-035 FHWA-ICT-10-070 Simple Cost-Effective Scour Sensor F. Ansari 7/1/2010
Local bridge scour is caused by the interference of bridge piers with the flow of water and is characterized by the formation of scour holes. Local scour occurs at a bridge pier when the local flow field is strong enough to remove bed materials. Several variables affect the scour depth including the flow intensity, the relative flow depth, the pier-width, and the properties of the river bed materials. This study developed a fiber optic scour sensor capable of monitoring and providing quantitative characteristics of both scour depth and flow processes, i.e. rate. The proposed fiber optic scour sensor will include a single Fiber Optic Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor embedded inside a rod cantilevered into the river bed. The sensor will allow for better monitoring of scour and therefore better bridge maintenance. Research results proved that the simple concept for the development of a very low cost sensor with only one sensing element is sound. The simplicity of the sensor allows for widespread implementation in myriads of scour critical bridges. Field experimentations have been limited to few tests; however, and the system has not been thoroughly tested under flood situations. Further experiments are necessary to accurately determine the sensor resolution and repeatability under field conditions and to further establish the software for more sophisticated and user-friendly remote monitoring applications.
Show Abstract R27-030 FHWA-ICT-10-068 Evaluation of 3-D Laser Scanning for Construction Application D.K. Slattery, K.T. Slattery 4/1/2010
The objective of the project was to evaluate cost-effective means to implement laser scanning technology in the construction phase of IDOT projects. The primary goal was to study the use of a laser scanner for evaluating pay quantities for earthwork operations. The feasibility of using a scanner for other applications such as monitoring settlement due to pile driving, providing initial survey data for design, evaluating gravel and pavement thickness, assessing pavement roughness, surveying damaged bridges, and documenting archaeological investigations was also evaluated. Laser scans of ongoing construction projects were performed, and the workflow for operation of the scanner in the field was developed and documented. Software was developed using Visual Basic 2005 to process the data and to compare scanner data to a conventional survey. The research showed that laser scanning technology is a feasible means to measure earthwork quantities for payment in highway construction projects. Used in conjunction with traditional surveying techniques and equipment to establish horizontal and vertical control, the laser scanner can quickly map the terrain and provide data for earthwork quantity calculations.
Show Abstract R27-034 FHWA-ICT-10-067 Pavement Program Planning based on Multi-Year Cost-Effectiveness F. Peng, Y. Ouyang 3/1/2010
Many traditional planning procedures tend to postpone maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MR&R) work until the pavement facility becomes significantly deteriorated. Any repair and rehabilitation work carried out after significant deterioration of the pavement turns out to be time consuming and not cost effective. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) have been actively promoting preventive maintenance policies to state DOTs. Such proactive policies prescribe less-costly treatments for pavement facilities in order to prevent severe deterioration from occurring. This research project aims to develop such a cost effective planning procedure for the State of Illinois. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced pavement program planning procedure based on multi-year cost-effectiveness analysis. As a part of this project, a study on existing successful pavement management programs was conducted to understand the state of practice. Effective (yet simple) mathematical models have been developed to support pavement program planning practices. The developed models incorporate the concept of cost effective ranking for pavement program planning and would help in making decisions that focus on preventive maintenance. A spreadsheet-based software has been developed to serve as a decision-making support tool that facilitates the planning process. This software will help IDOT officials to easily incorporate the developed mathematical ranking models into their routine pavement maintenance planning process. The outcomes of this project (planning models and decision-support software) will help IDOT staff (i) make better decisions on the cost-effectiveness of MR&R activities and (ii) facilitate cost effective highway preservation and improvement in Illinois.
Show Abstract R27-020 FHWA-ICT-10-066 Development and Application of Safety Performance Functions for Illinois R.A. Tegge, J.-H. Jo, Y. Ouyang 3/1/2010
This report explains the procedure involved in developing Safety Performance Functions (SPF) for the road segments and intersections in the state of Illinois, under the jurisdiction of the Illinois Department of Transportation. SPFs predict the relationship among traffic, geometric conditions of the road and crash density, crash severity, and crash type. The SPFs are developed in such a way that they can be easily incorporated into the Safety Analyst tool that is being developed by FHWA to analyze and improve the safety of road elements. The SPFs are used to calculate a given site’s Potential for Safety Improvement (PSI) and thus help in identifying the locations that have the highest potential for improvement. A literature review was conducted as a part of the study to identify the methodology that would be needed. The literature review included studies on identifying the statistical techniques best suited for the requirement and identifying road element variables that have to be considered while developing SPFs. This report also includes the background and rationale behind the use of techniques such as Empirical Bayesian method, Sliding Window technique, and other such procedures that have been used in the analysis. As part of the study, road segments and intersections were classified into peer groups such that members of a peer group would have homogenous characteristics. Network Screening was conducted for all state-maintained (marked and unmarked) routes to identify high-crash locations, which directly supports the development of the 2008 Illinois Five Percent Report to FHWA. This project also develops a VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) software tool that can be directly used by Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) officials to update SPFs and PSI screening in the future. This tool incorporates the statistical and computation models in an easy-to-use Excel spreadsheet environment. The software also automates the decision support process for identifying high crash sites in the Illinois roadway network. The system requirements and the procedure involved in using the software are explained in this report.
Show Abstract R27-SP14 FHWA-ICT-10-065 Texas - AASHTO Retroreflective Sign Sheeting Specifications L. Y. Liu 3/1/2010
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) was appointed to chair an American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ (AASHTO) effort to develop a specification that will simplify and improve how sign sheeting materials will be specified for state DOTs. At the same time, ASTM began efforts to modify their specifications which over the years have expanded to the point that each type that is specified is unique to a single producer. To address the true differences in the performance of these materials TxDOT and TTI (Texas Transportation Institute) conducted a sign sheeting research demonstration, "Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control," held on May 21-22, 2009, in College Station, Texas. The two entities hosted the event in which manufacturers, industry, and end users joined forces to attempt to resolve questions regarding how drivers perceive retroreflective sign materials. This report contains the proceedings of the field trip experience from the May demonstration in Texas and summarizes the discussions leading to a final draft specification (7/25/09) that was distributed to the AASHTO Subcommittee on Materials Tech Section 4d Sign Sheeting Task Force. This effort led to a new AASHTO Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control (M 268-09).
Show Abstract R27-068 FHWA-ICT-10-062 Conference Proceedings: Midwest Transportation Air Quality Summit Michael Koerber 1/1/2010
The Midwest Transportation Air Quality Summit, held from October 27-29, 2009, provided federal, state, regional, and local transportation and air agency representatives with an opportunity to discuss topics affecting both transportation and air quality planning. Conference sessions included state implementation planning activities for new air quality standards, mobile source emission inventories, highway project-level analyses, current diesel engine programs, climate change, mobile source air toxics, and on-going mobile source-related research studies. Attendees included 64 representatives from federal, state, regional, and local transportation or air agencies in the Midwest. States represented included Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. A total of 42 presentations were made by 32 speakers. These conference proceedings summarize the presentations and major messages from the conference.
Show Abstract R27-006 FHWA-ICT-10-063 Implementation and Evaluation of the Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Computing Basin Characteristics and Flood Peaks in Illinois A.L. Ishii, D.T. Soong, J.B. Sharpe 1/1/2010
Illinois StreamStats (ILSS) is a Web-based application for computing selected basin characteristics and flood-peak quantiles
Show Abstract R27-009 FHWA-ICT-10-061 Monitoring of the I-39 Kishwaukee Bridge M. Wang and J. Yim 1/1/2010
This report details the continuous monitoring of the Kishwaukee Bridge. The data collected includes measurements such as bridge deck acceleration, temperature changes, and crack opening displacement data from local deformation gages. The monitored data also includes modal frequencies, shear strain at known crack locations, and daily truck traffic. The instrument response provides needed information for real-time inspection and planned maintenance and rehabilitation. The main objective of this research was to continue monitoring of the bridge through the retrofitting contract and beyond to validate that the design and retrofitting strategy performed on the bridge arrested the crack growth. The measurements collected from this study will be used to infer possible structural changes and to guide retrofit strategies for compromised components, ensuring the bridge’s integrity and stability into the future.
Show Abstract R56 FHWA-ICT-10-064 Speed Photo-Radar Enforcement Evaluation in Illinois Work Zones R.F. Benekohal, A. Hajbabaie, J.C. Medina, M.-H. Wang, M.V. Chitturi 1/1/2010
The effects of an automated Speed Photo-radar Enforcement (SPE) system on the speed of vehicles in highway work zones were evaluated in this study. The SPE effects were also compared to other speed management treatments, including speed display trailers, police presence (with the patrol emergency lights on and off), and the combination of speed display trailer and police presence. Three datasets were collected in two work zones and the effects were studied at the location of the treatment and also at a location about 1.5 miles downstream in the work zone (spatial effects). The halo effects (temporal effects) of police presence and SPE, after they left the work zone, were also analyzed. Results are presented separately for cars and trucks in free-flow and in the general traffic stream in the median and shoulder lanes. SPE reduced the average speed of free flowing cars in the median lane by 6.3-7.9 mph and in the shoulder lane by 4.1-7.7 mph. The reductions brought down the average speeds near or below the posted speed limit of 55 mph. In addition, the SPE reduced the speeding by 40-51% in the median and by 7-57% in the shoulder lane for free flowing cars. Similarly, for free flowing trucks SPE reduced the average speed in the median lane by 3.4-6.9 mph and in the shoulder lane by 4.0-6.1 mph, to speeds below the posted speed limit of 55 mph. SPE also reduced the speeding free flow trucks by 10-53% in the median lane and by 0-56% in the shoulder lane. For the general traffic stream, SPE reduced average speeds by 5.1-8.0 mph in the median lane and by 4.3-7.7 mph in the shoulder lane. Likewise, trucks in the general traffic stream traveled 3.7- 5.7 mph slower in the median and 3.9-6.4 mph slower in the shoulder lane. SPE lowered the average speed of the general traffic stream below the speed limit in all cases. SPE was as effective as the police patrol presence with the emergency lights off. In two of the three datasets, SPE had 2.0-3.8 mph spatial effects on free flowing cars and 1.1-1.9 mph on cars in the general traffic stream. However, on all three datasets SPE had 0.8-5.3 mph spatial effects on free flowing trucks and 0.9-3.2 mph on trucks in the general traffic stream. The reduction in the percentage of downstream speeding drivers varied from 0%-44%. Finally, halo effects were very limited and only observed for SPE on free-flowing heavy vehicles in one work zone and free flowing cars in the second work zone. Police presence did not have halo effects.
Show Abstract R27-001 FHWA-ICT-09-060 Characterization of Illinois Aggregates for Subgrade Replacement and Subbase E. Tutumluer, D. Mishra, A.A. Butt 12/1/2009
Construction of a pavement working platform is often needed on soft, unstable soils to provide sufficient stability and adequate immediate support for equipment mobility and paving operations without developing excessive rutting. The aggregate type and quality are important factors for determining the required treatment/ replacement thickness. The overall objective in this project has been to characterize strength, stiffness, and deformation behavior of three crushed and uncrushed aggregate materials, i.e., limestone, dolomite and uncrushed gravel, commonly used in Illinois for subgrade replacement and subbase. The goal has been to develop aggregate thickness correlations with aggregate properties to modify and improve the thickness requirement curve in IDOT’s Subgrade Stability Manual based on both laboratory and field performances. The initial laboratory phase of the study presented in this report considered both plastic and non-plastic fines (passing No. 200 sieve or 0.075 mm) blended in the engineered gradations of the limestone, dolomite and uncrushed gravel at 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16% target fines content. From the test results, the most important property at low fines contents (less than 8%) was the aggregate type governed by the angularity, i.e. crushed or uncrushed, and the amount of voids in the aggregate matrix. Especially when plastic fines with a plasticity index or PI of 10 or higher were included, the amount of fines had a drastic effect on aggregate performance.
Show Abstract R39-005 FHWA-ICT-09-058 Fatigue Failure Testing in Section F S. Beranek, S.H. Carpenter 11/1/2009
Project IHR-R39, titled “Validation of Design Concepts for Extended Life Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements (ELHMAP), was funded by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) to develop data in support of the philosophy of design and performance of the newly proposed concept of Perpetual Pavements (PP). The concept of a PP was to have a rut-resistant surface, a fatigue-resistant asphalt rich lower layer, and sufficient total thickness to eliminate the development of fatigue cracking. The total thickness would produce a tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layers that would be below 70 micro strain during the hottest period of the year. A major part of the testing was directed toward developing updated laboratory fatigue algorithms for current IDOT mixtures. The full scale test sections included a six inch thick section constructed for testing to fatigue failure. This testing was designed to illustrate the degree of conservatism involved in using the laboratory design fatigue algorithms relative to actual testing in the field. This report describes the testing and results that support the concept of healing, rest periods between wheel loads, in extending the fatigue life in the field relative to the laboratory predictions. The testing reported here supports a life extension ranging from 10 to 20 based on field crack development.
Show Abstract R27-018 FHWA-ICT-09-057 Crash Data Analysis and Engineering Solutions for Local Agencies J.-H. Jo, J.-S. Lee, Y. Ouyang, Z. Li 9/1/2009
This report introduces the development process of an Internet-based, GIS-compatible software tool for Illinois local road crash analysis. This state-of-the-art tool is capable of performing crash information query, trend analysis, statistical analysis, color-coded mapping, and other safety information display within the web-based GIS compatible environment. The Internet-accessible user interface allows users to inquire about detailed information on vehicle crashes associated with road segments and intersections for any geographical regions or jurisdictions in the state of Illinois via query forms or zoom-enabled interactive maps. In addition, users can specify a data aggregation type, time range, and information type to display crash information in formats of tables, charts, or maps. This system helps the state and local transportation agencies in Illinois to screen dangerous highway segments, diagnose safety performance of the selected roads, and identify the most cost-effective countermeasures for safety improvements. This report addresses three major technical issues of the system design: (1) system architecture design and software development technologies, (2) supportive databases and data structure, and (3) user interfaces and system functionality. The report introduces system architecture and background components with used technologies for the full-scale implementation. In addition, descriptions on required datasets, their structures, and data-related issues are presented to explain the characteristics of databases. The system functionality section introduces functional definitions and explains the development purposes of all modules in the system. The report also explains how to utilize each module and provide required inputs for online crash data query and the decision support process based on web-based GIS applications.
Show Abstract R27-023 FHWA-ICT-08-021 Evaluation of HMA Overlays in Illinois A.S. Wolters, T.E. Hoerner, and K.D. Smith 9/1/2008
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has evaluated the performance of the pavements in Illinois in a variety of studies over the years. Since those studies were conducted, several changes in IDOT practices, policies, and procedures have sparked the need to reassess the performance of HMA overlays in Illinois. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of HMA overlays in Illinois. The service life of the overlays is affected by a variety of factors that were examined in this study. Specifically, the following attributes were examined: • Construction year period • Location • Condition before overlay placement • Presence of D-cracking on rigid pavement sections before overlay • Underlying concrete type • Estimated overlay number • Overlay type The service life trends observed in the 231 examined datasets were as expected for the majority of the datasets. However, there were some inconsistencies or unexpected trends in the results for several data sets. For those cases, the data were reviewed and the reasons for the inconsistent or unexpected trends were often obvious. The data causing the unexpected trends were not removed from the datasets as the data was true CRS data. Based upon the service life results, the impact of the evaluated variables on the performance of the HMA overlays were documented in the report. The database of information developed as part of the study contains a wealth of information that can be used to further analyze the effects of various attributes on the performance of HMA overlays.
Show Abstract R27-019 FHWA-ICT-10-074 Pier and Contraction Scour Prediction in Cohesive Soils at Selected Bridges in Illinois T.D. Straub, and T.M. Over 8/1/2010
This report presents the results of testing the Scour Rate In Cohesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method for estimating scour depth of cohesive soils at 15 bridges in Illinois. The SRICOS-EFA method for complex pier and contraction scour in cohesive soils has two primary components. The first component includes the calculation of the maximum contraction and pier scour (Zmax). The second component is an integrated approach that considers a time factor, soil properties, and continued interaction between the contraction and pier scour (SRICOS runs). The SRICOS-EFA results were compared to scour prediction results for non-cohesive soils based on Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 (HEC-18). On average, the HEC-18 method predicted higher scour depths than the SRICOS-EFA method. A reduction factor was determined for each HEC-18 result to make it match the maximum of three types of SRICOS run results. The unconfined compressive strength (Qu) for the soil was then matched with the reduction factor and the results were ranked in order of increasing Qu. Reduction factors were then grouped by Qu and applied to each bridge site and soil. These results, and comparison with the SRICOS Zmax calculation, show that less than half of the reduction-factor method values were the lowest estimate of scour; whereas, the Zmax method values were the lowest estimate for over half. A tiered approach to predicting pier and contraction scour was developed. There are four levels to this approach numbered in order of complexity, with the fourth level being a full SRICOS-EFA analysis. Levels 1 and 2 involve the reduction factors and Zmax calculation, and can be completed without EFA data. Level 3 requires some surrogate EFA data. Levels 3 and 4 require streamflow for input into SRICOS. Estimation techniques for both EFA surrogate data and streamflow data were developed.
Show Abstract R54 FHWA-ICT-09-056 Development of Standard for Lifting Loops in Precast Deck Beams D.A. Kuchma and C.R. Hart 8/1/2009
Prestressing strands, bent into loops and cast within beams, are the most common anchorage system used for handling precast beams. No national guidance exists for the design of lifting loops in members that are shallower than 24 inches. To address this shortcoming, the 2003 IDOT Prestressed Concrete Manual provided requirements for lifting loops that were derived from experience and best engineering judgment. An experimental research program was conducted at the University of Illinois to investigate the performance and capacity of lifting loops cast in deck beams, and also on the rupture strength of strand loops that protrude from heavily confined specimens. The key variables in the deck beam tests were the shape of the lifting loop, depth of embedment, side edge distance, number of strands per loop, number of lifting loops in a corner of a beam, and angle of pull. The key variables in the strand rupture tests were the number of strands per lifting loop, the uniformity of strand shape, the constraint of strands by a conduit, and the shape of the contact surface of the lifting device. The results of these experiments, in conjunction with a review of previous work and field practices, support and help justify the recent changes to IDOT lifting loop design requirements as presented in the 2007 ABD Memorandum 07.2. In the absence of another suitable design, a lifting loop must satisfy the IDOT requirements of a minimum 60-degree lift angle, a minimum 6-inch edge clearance, and an embedment depth that is at least equal to the overall depth of the member less 4 inches. The test results demonstrated the benefit of using multiple stands per lifting loop, multiple lifting loops in a corner of a beam, higher lift angles, and conduit to help ensure more uniform shape and engagement of strands. The results of this research have reinforced IDOT’s current design requirements for lifting loops and revealed the need for a national standard.
Show Abstract R27-027 FHWA-ICT-09-055 Expansive Characteristics of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Used As Base Materials D. Deniz, E. Tutumluer, J.S. Popovics 8/1/2009
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is the reprocessed hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavement material containing asphalt and aggregates. A viable solution for deposing of large quantities of RAP is to incorporate them into base and subbase applications for highway construction. However, RAP materials may contain an expansive aggregate, such as steel slag, that is not allowed in pavement substructure layers in Illinois. Steel slag aggregates are particularly useful in areas where high frictional properties are required, such as HMA surface courses, yet, they may contain free lime and magnesia that may cause the slag to expand when reacted with water. The overall objective of this research project was to determine the expansive properties for RAP materials, especially the materials including recycled steel slag aggregates, with respect to those of the virgin aggregates, and evaluate their potential use as pavement base materials in Illinois. Seventeen RAP materials and virgin aggregates were tested for their expansive characteristics in the laboratory following the ASTM D4792 “Potential Expansion of Aggregates from Hydration Reactions” test method. The specimens in California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test molds were submerged into a high alkali cement water solution (pH of 12) and kept constantly soaked at 70°C to accelerate hydration reactions. The expansion percentage of the CBR specimens and the temperature and pH levels of the solution were measured continuously on a daily basis during the soaking period for a minimum of 7 days and maximum 60 days until the expansion curve flattened or the expansion rate slowed down. Some steel slag aggregates showed considerably high expansion potentials, up to 6.2% swell, due to the hydration of free lime when compared to other virgin aggregates, such as siliceous gravel and crushed dolomite, which had minor or almost no expansion. The RAP materials, which often had lower densities, exhibited more of an initial settlement or contraction before any kind of expansion with time. Two RAP materials, surface RAP with 92% steel slag aggregates and steel slag RAP, gave the maximum expansion amounts 1.69% and 1.46%, respectively. When compared to the high expansion potentials of especially the virgin steel slag aggregates, the RAP materials had much lower tendencies to expand most likely due to an effective asphalt coating around the aggregate which prevents any significant ingress of water into the aggregate.
Show Abstract R27-025 FHWA-ICT-09-054 Modification of IDOT Integral Abutment Design Limitations and Details S.M. Olson, J.H. Long, J.R. Hansen, D. Renekis, and J.M. LaFave 8/1/2009
The use of integral abutment bridges (IABs) is growing rapidly in the U.S., primarily because of lower maintenance costs compared to conventional bridges. However, current length and skew limitations employed by IDOT are not based on rigorous engineering analysis. To potentially expand the use of IABs in Illinois, the project team performed extensive 2-D and 3-D analyses to examine a wide range of IAB parameters in addition to length and skew. The numerical analyses yielded the following findings when the bridge structures were subjected to extreme thermal loading: (1) The presence of the backfill and development of full passive pressures against the abutment backwall have a negligible effect on the pile foundation performance. (2) The use of wingwalls that are parallel to the bridge deck (rather than parallel to the abutment backwall) has little effect on the abutment or pile foundation performance, and does not significantly reduce backfill settlement when the backfill is uncompacted. In addition, use of uncompacted backfill reduces the vertical support of the approach slab and results in greater stresses and moments in the approach slab. (3) Soil type (when the soil is reasonably competent) has only a secondary effect on the abutment and pile foundation performance. (4) Use of steel vs. concrete girders (within the limited number of girder types and sizes considered) also has only a secondary effect on the abutment and pile foundation performance. (5) Acceptable IAB length and skew combinations that induce stresses in the foundation piles that do not exceed the pile yield stress are summarized in the report. Several moment-reducing options are available to increase these limitations, including: (a) predrilling pile locations to 8 feet, (b) reducing pile embedment into the pile cap to 6 inches (creating a hinge at the pile/pile cap interface), and (c) incorporating a mechanical hinge such as that used by the Virginia DOT at the cold joint between the pile cap and the abutment. (6) Instrumenting and monitoring one or more IABs in Illinois is essential to validate the numerical modeling described in this report, and to potentially investigate the effectiveness of one or more moment-reducing options.
Show Abstract P-2009-01 ICT-09-053 Performance of Concrete Pavements with Optimized Slab Geometry V. Cervantes, J. Roesler 8/1/2009
The typical slab dimensions for a concrete pavement are 12 ft wide by 15ft long with slab thicknesses ranging from 6 to 14 inches depending on the level of traffic. The required thickness is primarily dependent on the axle weight and number of load repetitions, concrete strength, slab length, and curling stresses. A new methodology for designing concrete pavements has recently been proposed to optimize the slab dimensions, e.g., 6 ft by 6 ft panel sizes, which concurrently decreases the load and curling induced tensile stresses in the slab. This concomitant reduction in stresses enables a thinner concrete slab and subsequently the economical viability of concrete pavements is improved. It has also been proposed that these pavement systems don’t need any man-made load transfer devices across the transverse contraction joints. This new way of designing concrete pavements has been referred to as “Thin Concrete Pavements (TCP)” or concrete slabs with optimized geometry. Full-scale test sections of this new concrete pavement system have been constructed and tested under accelerated pavement loading conditions. The design and concrete material factors that have been subjected to repeated loading in this research are the following: concrete thickness of 4, 6, and 8 inches; aggregate base or asphalt concrete base; plain concrete or fiber reinforced concrete; and edge versus wheel path loading. The accelerated pavement testing showed that these thinner concrete slabs with reduced slab sizes could sustain a significant number of ESALs before cracking. The 8 inch concrete slabs on granular base did not experience fatigue cracking until 51 million ESALs. The 6 inch concrete slabs on granular began cracking on average at 12 million ESALs. The concrete slabs on asphalt base resisted a significant larger number of ESALs than the same concrete thickness on granular base. The cracking performance of the 3.5 inch concrete slabs varied with the stiffness of the soil. In all cases for the 3.5 inch slab thickness, structural fibers provided a longer fatigue life, extended service life, and high load transfer efficiency across the transverse joint relative to the plain concrete slabs. Trafficking tests indicated that the fibers may also be able to serve as a replacement for the lateral restraint pins. Finally, the shorter slabs sizes maintained a medium to high load transfer efficiency over the accelerated loading period for all slab thicknesses. Measurements indicated these slab systems have higher deflections as expected and therefore the aggregate base layer and subgrade must be designed and specified to reduce the rate of permanent deformation and minimize the possibility of pumping and erosion. Premature concrete slab cracking may result if improper base material and thickness is not utilized, a geotextile separation layer is not used between the base and subgrade, and inadequate drainage of the slab system is not provided.
Show Abstract R27-021 FHWA-ICT-09-051 Roundabout Evaluation and Design: A Site Selection Procedure R.F. Benekohal, V. Atluri 7/1/2009
This study surveyed IDOT staff about roundabouts, evaluated two popular roundabout software programs (aaSIDRA and RODEL), developed a multi-criteria site selection procedure, and used it to identify 10 potential intersections in Illinois that may reduce fatalities and severe injuries by using a roundabout. IDOT jurisdiction includes three roundabouts built or under construction and four roundabouts in planning stages. One third of IDOT districts were familiar with the RODEL and aaSIDRA, but they did not have working knowledge of the software. Some districts were concerned about proper roundabout usage by unfamiliar, younger, or elderly drivers. For the same traffic conditions, aaSIDRA yielded higher delay than RODEL for most of the reasonable volume combinations. Capacity values from RODEL are very similar to FHWA’s 2000 Guide and both are higher than the new NCHRP 572 model, but aaSIDRA’s capacity curves are similar to that of NCHRP 572. This study used aaSIDRA for developing the proposed site selection procedure. A multi-criteria site selection procedure was developed and its application is presented. The factors considered in the site selection process included crash history, intersection delay (LOS), roundabout capacity, distribution of traffic volume among approaches, location of intersection, and input from “local” engineers. The site selection process was used to identify the top 10 potential roundabout locations in Illinois. Further modification to this procedure is needed to cover other types of roads (multi lane) and traffic conditions. It is recommended that, for the time being, IDOT follow the FHWA Roundabout Guide (2000) in conjunction with the findings of recently published NHCRP Report 572 as a guideline for the design of roundabouts. The upcoming FHWA Roundabout Guide and a new roundabout chapter in the 2010 Highway Capacity Manual will include significantly new information that could be used in developing a roundabout design guide for IDOT.
Show Abstract R57 FHWA-ICT-09-052 Mechanistic-Empirical Design Concepts for Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements in Illinois A. Bordelon, J. Roesler, J. Hiller 7/1/2009
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) currently has an existing jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) design method based on mechanistic-empirical (M-E) principles. The objective of this research was to provide IDOT with an improved design process for JPCP based on new research findings over the past 15 years. Existing JPCP methods such as the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) were reviewed. Two conclusions from the review of current design methods were that a geographic specific temperature and site specific load spectra analysis were not necessary at this time to produce reasonable concrete thicknesses. A single climate zone and the ESAL concept to represent mixed truck traffic are therefore still recommended for the state of Illinois based on current rigid pavement design technology. A new mechanistic-empirical design process was proposed based on the principles of the current IDOT method. This new design process was implemented into a spreadsheet program to allow for rapid plotting of design charts and also to enable pavement engineers to readily conduct special design studies that may be warranted when certain inputs fall outside the recommended values used to plot the new design charts. The new design inputs are pavement layer and slab geometry, material layer properties, concrete strength, ESALs, slab-base interface bond condition, temperature curling analysis type, shoulder type, and a reliability-based fatigue algorithm derived from laboratory beam tests. Due to the limited JPCP performance data, the recommended design process did not use a field calibrated damage-to-cracking model but was verified against the existing JPCP method.
Show Abstract R57 FHWA-ICT-09-040 Mechanistic-Empirical Design Concepts for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements in Illinois M. Beyer, J. Roesler 4/1/2009
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) currently has an existing jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) design based on mechanistic-empirical (M-E) principles. However, their continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) design procedure is empirical and based on a modified AASHTO nomograph for jointed reinforced concrete pavement. The objective of this study was to develop and implement an M-E design procedure that IDOT could use for routine CRCP design. The proposed procedure is based on mechanistic-empirical design principles taken largely from the models presented in NCHRP 1-37A and on work completed by Dr. Dan Zollinger of Texas A&M University. The equations for calculating the mean crack spacing and the number of punchouts per mile at the end of the design life for a given traffic volume, pavement layer and CRC slab geometry, shoulder type, and layer material properties have been implemented in a user-friendly spreadsheet. Several new developments in the proposed design process are fatigue damage accumulations at the critical top and bottom location in the CRCP slab, equations for calculating the equivalent damage ratio for several shoulder types and crack stiffness values, application of a strength reduction factor to the concrete stress ratio calculated at the surface of the CRCP, and a new logistic-type punchout prediction model. Due to the numerous measured and assumed input variables in this CRCP design framework, the mechanistic analysis was calibrated against CRCP field performance data from Illinois and CRCP accelerated pavement test data completed at the University of Illinois.
Show Abstract R27-022 FHWA-ICT-09-050 Regional Data Archiving and Management for Northeast Illinois S. Dhanaraju, Y. Ouyang, U.D. Tursun 6/1/2009
This project studies the feasibility and implementation options for establishing a regional data archiving system to help monitor and manage traffic operations and planning for the northeastern Illinois region. It aims to provide a clear guidance to the regional transportation agencies, from both technical and business perspectives, about building such a comprehensive transportation information system. Several implementation alternatives are identified and analyzed. This research is carried out in three phases. In the first phase, existing documents related to ITS deployments in the broader Chicago area are summarized, and a thorough review is conducted of similar systems across the country. Various stakeholders are interviewed to collect information on all data elements that they store, including the format, system, and granularity. Their perception of a data archive system, such as potential benefits and costs, is also surveyed. In the second phase, a conceptual design of the database is developed. This conceptual design includes system architecture, functional modules, user interfaces, and examples of usage. In the last phase, the possible business models for the archive system to sustain itself are reviewed. We estimate initial capital and recurring operational/maintenance costs for the system based on realistic information on the hardware, software, labor, and resource requirements. We also identify possible revenue opportunities. A few implementation options for the archive system are summarized in this report; namely: 1. System hosted by a partnering agency 2. System contracted to a university 3. System contracted to a national laboratory 4. System outsourced to a service provider The costs, advantages and disadvantages for each of these recommended options are also provided.
Show Abstract R27-032 FHWA-ICT-09-049 Improving the Safety of Moving Lane Closures D.A. Steele, W.R. Vavrik 6/1/2009
Moving lane closures are an increasingly utilized and inherently hazardous traffic control procedure for highway maintenance and operations activities. To improve the safety of moving lane closures for workers and motorists, this research studied driver behavior around moving lane closures and the effect of different components of current traffic control scenarios, including the number, configuration, and spacing of shadow vehicles, and the effect of various traffic control devices and sign messages. This report presents the results of Phase I of this study and includes the findings of full-scale field experiments performed at four locations. A future Phase II of the research will expand on these findings and produce specific recommendations for revisions to current traffic control standards to improve the safety of moving lane closures for highway workers and the travelling public.
Show Abstract R58 FHWA-ICT-09-044 Cost-Effectiveness and Performance of Overlay Systems in Illinois - Volume 1: Effectiveness Assessment of HMA Overlay Interlayer Systems Used to Retard Reflective Cracking I.L. Al-Qadi, W.G. Buttlar, J. Baek, and M. Kim 5/1/2009
This project evaluated the ability of interlayer systems used in HMA overlays to retard reflective cracking. Field crack surveys and forensic investigation, including video imaging and ground penetrating radar surveys as well as laboratory testing of cored specimens, were conducted to examine the behavior of reflective cracking and reflective cracking control systems applied in Illinois. Crack extent and severity were recorded at 24 locations across Illinois. The performance evaluation focused on five types of interlayer systems: area- and strip-type non-woven fabric; two strip-type composite; and a fine, high polymer content HMA interlayer system. Two reflective cracking indices were developed to characterize the condition of HMA overlays regarding reflective cracking as well as transverse cracking. In addition, a performance benefit ratio parameter, PBR, was developed to assess the performance of treated pavements relative to control sections. The study provided a quantitative assessment for various types of reflective cracking interlayer systems. In addition, it provides a means to predict the performance of several interlayer systems under various vehicular and environmental loading conditions through a simple ESALs-TL chart. A companion report (volume 2) provides tools for the selection of appropriate reflective crack control treatments based upon traffic, climate, and life cycle costs using a user-friendly life cycle cost analysis program (CIND – Cost-effective Interlayer system Decision program).
Show Abstract R58 FHWA-ICT-09-045 Cost-Effectiveness and Performance of Overlay Systems in Illinois Volume 2:Guidelines for Interlayer System Selection Decision When Used in HMA Overlays I.L. Al-Qadi, W.G. Buttlar, and J. Baek 5/1/2009
In an effort to control reflective cracking in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays placed over Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavements, several reflective crack control (RCC) systems, including interlayer systems, have been used. However, the cost-effectiveness of interlayer systems is still in doubt due their performance and additional costs. In this project, a decision making procedure to aid in the selection of cost-effective interlayer systems was developed. As a core step in evaluating the benefit-cost ratio (B/C) of interlayer systems, a user-friendly life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) program, CIND (Cost-effective Interlayer system Decision program) was developed. Based on sensitivity analysis, a B/C prediction model was proposed, which takes into account a performance benefit ratio (PBR) parameter, a material cost ratio (MCR), and a construction time ratio (CTR). Using the B/C model, a table was developed which allows the user to determine the most cost-effective interlayer system in a rehabilitation project for a given equivalent single-axle load (ESAL) level, representative low temperature (TL), and existing concrete pavement joint spacing (JS). Finally, a decision making tree was constructed to simplify the process of determining the most cost-effective and compatible interlayer system for a given project. Depending on project significance and/or information availability, pavement engineers can select from one of three newly developed B/C evaluation tools (in order of sophistication): application tables, B/C prediction model, and the CIND computer program. Using these tools, it was found that B/C increases as PBR increases or MCR and CTR decrease. In general, System D is cost-effective in a wide range of ESALs and TL values; especially in a cold region with lower traffic volume. The application range is reduced with the increase of JS, however. System E is relatively cost-effective only in warm regions having higher traffic volume.
Show Abstract R59 FHWA-ICT-09-048 Evaluation of Pavement Damage Due to New Tire Designs I.L. Al-Qadi, H. Wang 5/1/2009
The objective of this study is to evaluate pavement damage due to new tire designs using accelerated pavement testing (APT) and finite element (FE) modeling. Three tire configurations were investigated in this study, including the newly developed wide-base tire (455/55R22.5), an older generation of wide-base tire (425/65R22.5), and the conventional dual-tire configuration. Four full-depth flexible pavement sections with three various hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) thicknesses (6, 10 and 16.5 in. [152, 254, and 420 mm]) were exposed to APT. The measured tensile strains at the bottom of the HMA were compared under various tire loading conditions. A three-dimensional (3D) FE model was successfully developed to predict the pavement responses caused by various tire configurations and validated by field measurements. The developed 3D FE model incorporates the measured 3D tire-pavement contact stresses, HMA linear viscoelasticity, continuous moving load, and implicit dynamic analysis. Results of pavement damage analysis indicate that the wide-base 455 tire causes greater fatigue damage and subgrade rutting than the conventional dual-tire assembly does when carrying the same load. However, the relative damage ratios between various configurations at the same load decrease as the pavement thickness increases. On the other hand, the wide-base 455 tire causes less top-down cracking, “near-surface” cracking, and HMA rutting damage than the conventional dual-tire assembly does. Generally, the results show that using a wide-base 455 tire results in the least amount of pavement damage for an interstate road, slightly greater damage for a primary road, and more damage for a local road.
Show Abstract R27-SP12 FHWA-ICT-09-042 Forensic Collapse Investigation of a Concrete Bridge with Timber Piers D.J. Borello, B. Andrawes, J.F. Hajjar, S.M. Olson, J. Hansen, J. Buenker 4/1/2009
This report outlines the forensic investigation of the collapse of Bridge No. SN 019-5010 in DeKalb County, Illinois on August 19, 2008. The bridge consisted of three 42 feet precast prestressed concrete deck beams simply-supported by concrete pile caps with a timber pile foundation. Assessment based on site investigation, in situ readings, and analysis indicated that a geotechnical or superstructure failure may be ruled out. Samples of the oak timber piles were retrieved and tested under pure compression as well as combined compression and flexure. Laboratory testing results of these specimens were used to calibrate an analytical model of a full-scale single timber pile. The analytical model considered both symmetrical and unsymmetrical loading of the bridge. The results of the analytical model were used to determine the required live load to initiate collapse. The results of the investigation indicate that structural overload, leading to fracturing of the timber piles in combined compression and flexure, is the likely reason for the bridge failure.
Show Abstract R27-039 FHWA-ICT-09-041 Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) Online Training Course Development J.P. Hall, S. Stitt 4/1/2009
A key to the successful implementation of Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) for Illinois transportation projects is the active and informed participation of Illinois Department of Transportation’s (IDOT) stakeholders. Essential to this participation is a public understanding of CSS and the procedures through which CSS is being implemented by IDOT. The objective of this research was to develop an internet-based tutorial training course to provide information on CSS policies and procedures to affected citizens, elected officials, local agencies, interest groups, and other stakeholders of the IDOT. This course will enable these stakeholders to understand CSS and how to participate in the process The study investigated possible approaches to the presentation of training materials in an online environment. The study also collected information on CSS web-based training in other states as well as the latest developments on CSS in Illinois. The study team and the Technical Review Panel jointly developed course content requirements and selected delivery mechanisms. Using this information, an online training course was developed incorporating streaming audio/visual training module presentations. These presentations included an audio narrative, with corresponding visual presentation, and selected video interview segments. The use of streaming audio and video provides a more personalized presence to stakeholders and promotes understandability. The modules can also be used at public meetings as a slide presentation and as content for information pamphlets. The major benefit of this online CSS training course is to provide knowledge of IDOT’s CSS process to a wide variety of statewide stakeholders. Once developed for delivery over the Internet, the cost to the state of providing this training is minimal. Once trained, these stakeholders will be able to participate more effectively in the transportation project decision making process. IDOT will be able to obtain input from a wider variety of stakeholders for more efficient implementation of CSS.
Show Abstract R43 FHWA-ICT-09-046 Evaluation of Video Detection Systems Volume 2– Effects of Illumination Conditions in the Performance of Video Detection Systems J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, M. Chitturi 5/1/2009
The evaluation of three Video Detection Systems (VDS) at an instrumented signalized intersection in Rantoul Illinois, at both stop bar and advance detection zones, was performed under a wide range of lighting and weather conditions. The evaluated VDS are: Autoscope, Iteris and Peek. This document describes the effects of different illumination conditions (dawn, sunny morning, cloudy noon, dusk, and night) on false, missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls (errors in detection). Results showed that the illumination conditions significantly affect the performance of VDS. The best performance was found during cloudy noon conditions, with false calls lower than 4% for four of the six detection zones, but for the other two zones false calls were up to 18% and up to 21%, missed calls lower than 1% at stop bar, and up to 2.8% at advance zones, stuck-on calls lower than 1%, and no dropped calls. During dawn, false calls increased for the three VDS (up to 23%), and missed calls increased by 18% only in one system in one specific zone. During a sunny morning, false calls increased in greater proportion in zones where vehicle shadows were more prominent (up to 21% at stop bar and up to 43% at advance zones). Results during the dusk condition followed trends similar to the dawn, but with higher increases in false calls (ranging from no change to about 50% increase), and higher increases in the missed calls observed for one VDS. Lastly, during night, false calls increased for specific zones and systems, and various trends with relatively small changes were found in terms of missed calls. The findings of this study are published in four separate volumes. The other three volumes cover the effects of detection zone configuration changes, windy conditions, and adverse weather conditions.
Show Abstract R43 FHWA-ICT-09-047 Evaluation of Video Detection Systems Volume 3 - Effects of Windy Conditions in the Performance of Video Detection Systems J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, M. Chitturi 5/1/2009
The performance of three Video Detection Systems (VDS), namely Autoscope, Iteris, and Peek, was evaluated at stop bar and advance locations, at an instrumented signalized intersection located in Rantoul, Illinois, utilizing a side-by-side installation and large data sets covering a variety of conditions. This report contains the analysis and findings of the VDS performance under windy conditions during cloudy noon, sunny morning, and nighttime. There are three other reports that describe the effects of adverse weather, illumination, and adjusting the configuration of the VDS zones. The performance of the VDS in windy conditions was assessed based on the frequency of false, missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls (errors in detection); and was compared to calm weather scenarios (without wind). Results indicate minor wind effects during cloudy conditions at the stop bar zones, and less than 10% increases in the false calls at advance zones. In the sunny morning scenario (where long shadows were observed) false calls increased significantly at both stop bar (22-39%) and advance zones (20-70%), missed calls increased at advance zones for one VDS, while they decreased for the other two VDS, and stuck-on calls increased by less than 2% due to the shadow of the crossing street pole. At nighttime, false calls increased at stop bar zones (5-53%), and at advance zones (2-27%), and there were small fluctuations in the percentage of missed calls.
Show Abstract R43 FHWA-ICT-09-043 Evaluation of LED Vehicular and Pedestrian Modules A. Hajbabaie, R.F. Benekohal, J.C. Medina, M. Chitturi 4/1/2009
This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers’ preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules (ACS, Dialight, Leotek, and Lumination) and three pedestrian LED modules (Dialight, Leotek, and Lumination) were used. The compliance verification primarily involved reviewing the independent-lab testing reports, visual inspection of the modules, and analyzing the manufacturers’ responses to the questionnaires prepared by the research team. The solid LED modules provided by ASC had several issues with compliance with the ITE specification; however, the modules from other companies either complied or complied with reservation with all the ITE Specifications. No general conclusion were made for the arrow modules since at the time of completion of this study, ITE had not adopted a final specification for them. For pedestrian modules, all companies submitted independent lab test reports for some of the modules, but not for all. The reports showed that all these modules either complied with, or complied with reservation with most of the ITE specifications. To assess drivers’ preferences, 120 drivers participated in the evaluation of the modules. For solid modules in daytime, the participants’ ratings for the ASC were significantly higher than the other three companies. In nighttime, the ASC red module was rated much brighter than the Leotek module. However, for solid yellow and green modules, the brightness was rated the same for all companies. For red arrow modules in daytime when looking straight ahead, Dialight was rated similar to ASC, but significantly higher than Lumination and Leotek. However, for yellow and green arrows, Dialight was rated higher than all other three companies were. For all three colors of the arrow modules in daytime when looking at an angle, Dialight and ASC were rated significantly higher than Leotek and Lumination. For the pedestrian modules in daytime, the separate 12” Dialight module was rated significantly higher than the Leotek and Lumination modules. For 12” combination modules, Leotek and Dialight were rated higher than Lumination. For the 16”*18” combination modules, Lumination was rated significantly higher than Dialight. In rating the traffic modules, all of the respondents chose brightness, 93% chose color, and 88% selected uniformity as an important factor. The most important factor was brightness for 74%, color for 26%, and uniformity for 27% of the participants. In rating of the pedestrian modules, all of the respondents chose brightness, 94% chose color, 90% selected uniformity, and 70% selected size as an important factor. The most important factor was brightness for 75%, color for 25%, uniformity for 25%, and size for 23% of the participants.
Show Abstract R43 FHWA-ICT-09-039 Evaluation of Video Detection Systems: Volume 4 - Effects of Adverse Weather Conditions in the Performance of Video Detection Systems J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, M.V. Chitturi 3/1/2009
The performance of three video detection systems (VDS): Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek, was evaluated using a side-by-side installation at a signalized intersection under various adverse weather conditions including rain and snow in both day and nighttime, and light fog and dense fog in daytime. Four types of detection errors (false, missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls) were quantified at stop bar and advance detection zones, and all errors were visually verified using video images from the intersection. Results indicate that VDS performance was not greatly impacted under daytime light fog or rain conditions without wind, but significant changes were observed under dense fog and snow in daytime, and snow and rain in nighttime. During dense fog conditions Iteris and Autoscope changed their operating mode and placed constant calls due to image contrast loss, with potential for significant effects on traffic operation, while Peek significantly increased its missed calls. Snow in daytime and nighttime greatly increased false calls for the three systems (more than 50% of the VDS calls were false), but it had limited effects on missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls. False calls during rainy conditions without wind also increased, during both daytime (around 10%) and nighttime (between 10% and 50%), mostly due to the reflection of headlights of vehicles in the adjacent lanes. Detailed performance of the three VDS in each of the three stop bars and the three advance zones, as well as potential causes and effects of the most prominent error types are presented.
Show Abstract R27-012 FHWA-ICT-09-036 Cold In-place Recycling and Full-depth Recycling with Asphalt Products (CIR&FDRwAP) M.R. Thompson, L. Garcia, S.H. Carpenter 3/1/2009
In the 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s, many Illinois local road agencies successfully used “conventional” asphalt emulsions for In-Place Recycling to produce Emulsion-Aggregate-Mixtures (EAMs). In more recent years, these emulsions have not been widely used for Cold-In-Place Recycling construction. A major constraint to the continued utilization of EAMs was the long “drying time” (loss of moisture following mixing and prior to compaction) associated with the process. The use of “foamed-asphalt” and improved emulsion compositions (called “engineered emulsions”) has alleviated (some suggest eliminated) some of the concerns that have limited the use of emulsions for Cold-In-Place Recycling. The project objective is to evaluate and contribute to the facilitation and implementation of currently available CIR&FDRwAP (Cold In-Place Recycling and Full-Depth Recycling with Asphalt Products) technology. An “information/data” survey was conducted, ten selected CI&FDIRwAP projects were documented and evaluated, mixture properties (modulus, strength, fatigue) were established, thickness design options were evaluated, mixture design approaches were evaluated, and construction aspects considered. The mixture design procedures currently used by SemMaterials for Engineered Emulsions and the Wirtgen procedure (or procedures similar to the Wirtgen procedure) for foamed asphalt mixtures are recommended for interim use. Typical successfully used specifications for Full-Depth Recycling and Cold-in-Place-Recycling are presented. It is recommended that a “Working Group” be established to refine/further adapt the mixture design procedures and construction specifications for Illinois Local Roads and Streets utilization. Project information/findings/results support the recommendation that the CIR&FDRwAP process be considered a “standard procedure.” It currently is incorporated into a project as an “experimental feature.”
Show Abstract R27-036 FHWA-ICT-09-038 Transfer and Development Length of Prestressing Tendons in Full-Scale AASHTO Prestressed Concrete Girders using Self-Consolidating Concrete B. Andrawes, M. Shin, and A. Pozolo 3/1/2009
Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is a highly workable concrete that flows through densely reinforced or complex structural elements under its own weight. The benefits of using SCC include: a) Reducing labor costs by eliminating the need for mechanical vibration, b) Improving constructability, c) Providing a virtually flawless finish, d) Providing uniform and homogenous concrete, and e) Easily filling a complex shape formwork. Even though SCC is comparable to conventional concrete in terms of strength, the comparability of its bond to steel is less well-defined. This disparity of knowledge becomes more critical when using SCC in prestressed members due to the impact that bond strength has on the transfer and development lengths of prestressing tendons. The increasing interest among Illinois precasters in using SCC in bridge girders has motivated the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) to sponsor this synthesis study, which reviews and combines information from literature discussing the impact of using SCC on the transfer and development lengths of prestressing tendons in AASHTO bridge girders. The primary objectives of this study include: (1) Utilizing the results of previous research to evaluate the effect of using SCC on the transfer and development lengths of prestressing tendons and evaluate how SCC compares with conventional concrete, (2) Investigating the feasibility of using SCC in AASHTO bridge girders without the need for changing current design provisions recommended by the ACI and AASHTO, and (3) Providing IDOT with recommendations regarding the application of SCC in prestressed bridge girders.
Show Abstract R27-024 FHWA-ICT-09-037 Evaluation/Modification of IDOT Foundation Piling Design and Construction Policy J.H. Long, J. Hendrix, and A. Baratta 3/1/2009
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) estimates pile lengths based on a static analysis method; however, the final length of the pile is determined with a dynamic formula based on the pile driving resistance exhibited in the field. Because different methods are used for estimating and for acceptance, there is usually a lack of agreement between the estimated length and the driven length of pile. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of the methods currently used by IDOT, to assess other methods for estimating pile capacity, to improve the methods if possible, and to determine resistance factors appropriate for the methods. This study reports pile load test data along with pile driving information and subsurface information, and uses this information to investigate and quantify the accuracy and precision with which five different static methods and five different dynamic formulae predict capacity. These static methods are the IDOT Static method, the Kinematic IDOT (K-IDOT) method, the Imperial College Pile (ICP) method, Olson’s method and Driven. The dynamic formulae are the EN-IDOT formula, the FHWA-Gates Formula, the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) formula, the FHWA-UI formula, and WEAP. Three databases were assembled and used to quantify the ability of these methods to predict capacity. Results suggest that the three dynamic formulae: WS-DOT, the FHWA-Gates, and the UI-Gates provide similar accuracy. However, the WS-DOT formula is simple to implement and predicts capacity most consistently for the databases reviewed in this study. A value of 0.55 is recommended for the resistance factor for redundant piling.
Show Abstract R43 FHWA-ICT-08-024 Evaluation of Video Detection Systems, Volume 1 - Effects of Configuration Changes in the Performance of Video Detection Systems J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal, M. Chitturi 9/1/2008
The effects of modifying the configuration of three video detection (VD) systems (Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek) are evaluated in daytime and nighttime conditions. Four types of errors were used: false, missed, stuck-on, and dropped calls. The three VD systems were installed side-by-side at an intersection in Rantoul, IL. The configurations were modified by the vendors to improve their performance. The modifications to Peek VD configuration effectively reduced dropped calls at the stop bar zones; however, that was at the expense of increasing false calls during daytime and missed and false calls during night time. Similarly, in the advance zones, in both daytime and nighttime, there was a clear tradeoff between decreasing missed calls and increasing false calls. The modifications to Autoscope VD configuration did not provide a clear improvement at the stop bar zones during daytime; however, during nighttime, false calls increased and missed calls were eliminated. In the advance zones, the Autoscope changes significantly reduced missed calls in both day and night, reduced false calls in daytime, but increased in false calls during nighttime. The modifications to Iteris VD configuration were slight and overall effects of the changes were relatively small. This resulted in a tradeoff between false and missed calls. The results for three systems indicate that there are tradeoffs when the goal is to improve the overall performance of VD systems. Thus, after making modifications to the configuration of VD systems, the effects of these changes should be monitored not only for improvements on the previously detected errors, but also for potential new errors of a different type.
Show Abstract R55 FHWA-ICT-09-035 Tack Coat Optimization for HMA Overlays: Accelerated Pavement Test Report I.L. Al-Qadi, S.H. Carpenter, Z. Leng, H. Ozer, J.S. Trepanier 2/1/2009
Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements is one of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. This study was performed to quantify the effects of HMA type, tack coat type, tack coat application rate, and PCC surface texture on the interface bonding and overlay performance through laboratory testing, accelerated pavement testing (APT), and numerical modeling. This report presents the outcomes of the APT, as well as the numerical modeling of pavement interfaces. The results of the laboratory testing are covered in a companion report. The APT built on and validated previously completed laboratory tests where an HMA overlay was placed on top of an existing PCC pavement having various surface textures including smooth, transverse tined, longitudinal tined, and milled. In addition, zebra sections were included to evaluate the effect of non-uniform tack coat application. Asphalt emulsion SS-1hP and cutback asphalt RC-70 were applied at three residual application rates, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.09 gal/yd2 (0.09, 0.18, and 0.41 L/m2); asphalt binder PG64-22 was applied at 0.04 gal/yd2 (0.41 L/m2). Two HMA designs, standard binder mix and moisture sensitive binder mix, were used along with the three tack coats. Twenty-five pavement test sections were constructed and loaded with the Accelerated Transportation Loading ASsembly (ATLAS) at the centerline. The tensile strains at the bottom of HMA, to quantify potential interface slippage, were measured for selective sections, and primary HMA rutting was analyzed for all sections. The APT results validated laboratory determined optimum tack coat application rate, which provided the lowest interface strain and surface rutting in the field. Both PG64-22 and SS-1hP showed better rutting resistance than RC-70. Milled PCC surface provided lower rutting than transverse-tined and smooth surfaces. The field testing also showed that PCC cleaning methods play an important role in the HMA-PCC bonding. Higher rutting depth was measured in sections with uneven tack coat distribution compared to that with uniform tack coat distribution. Field testing results don’t show enough evidence to prove that using a moisture-sensitive mix will result in higher HMA surface rutting.
Show Abstract R27-017 FHWA-ICT-09-033 Effectiveness of Transit Strategies Targeting Elderly People: Survey Results and Preliminary Data Analysis K. Mohammadian, P. Thakuriah, T.H. Rashidi 2/1/2009
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has shown that America’s senior population has been growing and will almost double by 2030. This trend continues to challenge researchers who are looking to increase seniors’ awareness or favorable views toward public transportation and researchers who are developing innovative public transportation alternatives for seniors. These alternatives will try to wean seniors from their reliance on cars, while not compromising other transit riders’ safety and comfort. The research team at the University of Illinois at Chicago undertook this study as a first step toward meeting this challenge. To collect information on seniors’ travel attributes and their opinions about Northeastern Illinois’ public transportation system and potential service alternatives, the research team developed a comprehensive survey, covering four common trip purposes (doctor visits, shopping trips, social or recreational travel, and work trips) and various travel modes. These modes included combinations of non-motorized travel, auto use, and three commonly used public transportation modes (Metra, Pace, and the Chicago Transit Authority). The research team tested this survey on a small sample of respondents; modified it to maximize the number of accurate, unbiased responses; and sent it to 2,000 seniors who have resided in one of metropolitan Chicago’s six counties. Two hundred eighty seniors sent back complete and useful surveys that provided data for this study. Most of these seniors were unfamiliar with Northeastern Illinois’ public transportation system and did not view it as a driving alternative, partly because they view it as more hazardous than driving their own cars and less convenient than getting a ride from friends or family members. To help change these perceptions, the research team suggests that Northeastern Illinois’ public transit operators provide printed timetables and maps on their trains, buses, or stations; increase vehicle frequencies; provide real-time arrival information at stations and on cell phones; order more low floor and kneeling buses, clean their stations and vehicles better, and provide shuttle services specifically designed for seniors.
Show Abstract R27-031 FHWA-ICT-09-034 Wind-Powered Electrical Systems – Highway Rest Areas, Weigh Stations, and Team Section Buildings P. Chapman, P. Wiczkowski 2/1/2009
This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine the extent to which wind power could offset electricity costs, provide a reasonable return on investment, offset energy use, and provide educational opportunities. The project gathered and analyzed the natural wind resources available at (or near) these facilities. These data were then used in conjunction with various wind turbines that are currently commercially available. The result of this analysis is an approximation to the wind-based electrical energy potential of a given wind turbine at a given site. Thereafter, the monetary value of this electrical energy was computed and put in context of the cost of the wind turbine and associated overhead. In order to assess economic feasibility, the levelized cost of energy was then compared to current electricity rates for Illinois. This analysis showed that indeed there are some combinations of location and wind turbines that may produce electricity at a competitive rate. One of the most important factors in this analysis is the cost of wind turbines, which is generally unknown (but can be approximated) and depends on many factors. To account for this variability, the authors of this report have provided a spreadsheet containing all the data necessary to rapidly calculate the levelized cost of energy. The user of the spreadsheet need only enter some simple information, such as cost of the turbine and interest rates. The spreadsheet should enable procurement agents to rigorously compare the prices and returns for given locations and turbine manufacturers.
Show Abstract R55 FHWA-ICT-08-023 Tack Coat Optimization for HMA Overlays: Laboratory Testing I.L. Al-Qadi, S.H. Carpenter, Z. Leng, H. Ozer, J.S. Trepanier 9/1/2008
Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements can be one of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. Various factors may affect the bonding condition at the interface, including HMA material, tack coat material, tack coat application rate, PCC surface texture, temperature, and moisture conditions. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of these parameters on the permanent deformation of the HMA overlay. This study includes three major components to achieve the objective: laboratory testing, numerical modeling, and accelerated pavement testing. This report presents and analyzes the laboratory testing results. A direct shear test device was built and utilized to investigate the characteristics of the HMA-PCC interface and to determine the interface shear strength in the lab. Tests were run in monotonic mode at a constant loading rate of 0.47 in/min (12 mm/min). Test specimens were prepared using field PCC cores, laboratory prepared HMA, and tack coat materials provided by the supplier. Parameters affecting the interface performance that were evaluated include HMA material type (SM-9.5 surface mix and IM-19.5A binder mix), tack coat type (SS-1h and SS-1hP emulsions, and RC-70 cutback), tack coat application rate, PCC surface texture, temperature, and moisture conditions. Test results showed that the asphalt emulsions SS-1h and SS-1hP produced greater interface bonding strength than the cutback asphalt RC-70. The SM-9.5 surface mix was found to have better interface strength than the IM-19.0A binder mix. The HMA tested produced the same trend of interface shear strength with tack coat application rate for various tack coat types. The optimum residual tack coat application rate for the SS-1hP emulsion using IM-19.0A binder mix was 0.04 gal/yd2 (0.18 L/m2) in the lab. The direction of tining on the PCC produced no effect on interface shear strength at 20 oC. However, the milled concrete surface provided greater interface shear strength than both tined and smooth PCC surfaces for the same tack coat application rate. At the optimum tack coat application rate, the smooth PCC surface produced higher interface shear strength than the tined surface. As temperature increased, interface bonding strength decreased. Moisture conditioning significantly decreased the interface shear strength. This reduction was more pronounced when a stripping-vulnerable binder mix IM-19.0B was used.
Show Abstract R27-011 FHWA-ICT-09-031 Determination of Usable Residual Asphalt Binder in RAP I.L.. Al-Qadi, S.H. Carpenter, G.L. Roberts, H. Ozer, Q. Aurangzeb, M.A. Elseifi, and J. Trepanier 1/1/2009
For current recycled mix designs, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) assumes 100% contribution of working binder from Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials when added to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). However, it is unclear if this assumption is correct and whether some binder may potentially be acting as “black rock,” and not participating in the blending process with the new binder. Furthermore, it is also unclear whether binder modifications should be considered in the mix design for recycled HMA. The goal of this research was to determine if the current IDOT mix design practice required modification with respect to the use of RAP. A set of mixtures was prepared using RAP in accordance with current practice. Additional sets were prepared using recovered binder and recovered aggregate to simulate the effect of RAP binder blending with virgin binder. Mixes containing 0, 20, and 40%RAP were prepared and the dynamic modulus testing results of these mixtures were compared to illustrate the effect of RAP on HMA. Tests on recovered, virgin, and blended binders were also conducted using the Dynamic Shear rheometer (DSR). This study found that up to 20% RAP in HMA does not require a change in binder grade. However, at 40% RAP in HMA, a binder grade bump at high temperature and possibly at low temperature is needed; more tests are required to verify the need for low temperature binder grade bumping. In addition, this study recommends RAP fractionation in the preparation of laboratory specimens.
Show Abstract R27-041 FHWA-ICT-09-032 Performance of I-57 Recycled Concrete Pavement J. Roesler, J. G. Huntley 1/1/2009
In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggregates in the surface mixture of a 10-in continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). This CRCP test section on northbound and southbound I-57 contained a 7-in cement-stabilized subbase and a 13.5-ft extended lane width. Longitudinal reinforcement bars were placed using the tube feeding method. Functional and structural data, including falling weight deflectometer testing (FWD), distress surveys, friction testing, surface profile testing, and conditions rating surveys were collected periodically throughout the life of the pavement. Structural test data demonstrates a pavement section that has exhibited excellent load carrying capacity (less than 0.006-in deflection under 9-kip load), and load transfer efficiency across the transverse cracks. Furthermore, the cement-treated subbase and subgrade have performed well over the CRCP�s service life. There also was no structural response or cracking difference between the sections with the stabilized base extended under the shoulder versus the base that is only a standard lane width. Few structural distresses are observed except for the prominent amount of longitudinal cracking that appears over the reinforcement bars in all lanes. This abnormal cracking pattern has been noted for many years and has been attributed to settlement cracking associated with the original tube feeding process, the bar size selected, the bulk density of the concrete with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), and the higher drying shrinkage of RCA concrete. The section has developed a significant amount of localized distresses and patches over the past 5 years as a result of the further deterioration of this longitudinal cracking distress. A petrographic examination has concluded that there is no deleterious alkali-silica reaction occurring in the RCA test section, and that the air void system is normal. The mean transverse crack spacing is approximately 1.5 ft, which is significantly shorter than normal CRCP and can be attributed to the greater drying shrinkage potential, slightly lower tensile strength, and reduced fracture properties of RCA. Functionally, the pavement shows good skid resistance and fair-to-good ride quality. Overall, the performance of this CRCP pavement with RCA has exceeded roughly 50 percent of the 10-in CRCP within Illinois in terms of age and 25 percent in terms of traffic. Based on the 20 years of performance on the I-57 CRCP section, the future use of RCA on concrete pavement in Illinois can be approached with confidence and optimism. IDOT�s original material assessment has avoided any material-related distress such as freeze�thaw damage (D-cracking), ASR, and corrosion of the steel from excess chloride content. Future application of RCA in concrete pavements should consider its higher drying shrinkage potential and lower tensile strength and fracture energy. Future implementation of moist curing on concrete pavements with RCA or use of two-lift construction technique would minimize risk of the extremely close crack spacing due to excessive drying shrinkage noted on the I-57 CRCP test section.
Show Abstract R27-011 FHWA-ICT-07-001 Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement--A Literature Review I.L. Al-Qadi, M. Elseifi, S.H. Carpenter 3/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract TPF-5(045) ICT-08-026 Adhesion Testing Procedure for Hot-Poured Crack Sealants I.L. Al-Qadi, E. Fini, H. Figueroa, J.-F. Masson 11/1/2008
Crack sealing is a common pavement maintenance treatment because it extends pavement service life significantly. However, crack sealant often fails prematurely due to a loss of adhesion. Because current test methods are mostly empirical and only provide a qualitative measure of bond strength, they cannot predict sealant adhesive failure accurately. Hence, there is an urgent need for test methods based on bituminous sealant rheology that can better predict sealant field performance. This study introduces three laboratory tests aimed to assess the bond property of hot-poured crack sealant to pavement crack walls. The three tests are designed to serve the respective needs of producers, engineers, and researchers. The first test implements the principle of surface energy to measure the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which is the energy spent in separating the two materials at the interface. The work of adhesion is reported as a measure of material compatibility at an interface. The second test is a direct adhesion test, a mechanical test which is designed to closely resemble both the installation process and the crack expansion due to thermal loading. This test uses the Direct Tensile Test (DTT) machine. The principle of the test is to apply a tensile force to detach the sealant from its aggregate counterpart. The maximum load, Pmax, and the energy to separation, E, are calculated and reported to indicate interface bonding. The third test implements the principles of fracture mechanics in a pressurized circular blister test. The apparatus is specifically designed to conduct the test for bituminous crack sealant, asphalt binder, or other bitumen-based materials. In this test, a fluid is injected at a constant rate at the interface between the substrate (aggregate or a standard material) and the adhesive (crack sealant) to create a blister. The fluid pressure and blister height are measured as functions of time; the data is used to calculate Interfacial Fracture Energy (IFE), which is a fundamental property that can be used to predict adhesion. The stable interface debonding process makes this test attractive. This test may also provide a means to quantify other factors, such as the moisture susceptibility of a bond. In addition, the elastic modulus of the sealant and its residual stresses can be determined analytically. While the direct adhesion test is proposed as part of a newly developed performance-based guideline for the selection of hot-poured crack sealant, the blister test can be used to estimate the optimum annealing time and installation temperature.
Show Abstract TPF-5(045) ICT-08-027 Development of Apparent Viscosity Test for Hot-Poured Crack Sealants I.L. Al-Qadi, E.H. Fini, J.-F. Masson, A. Loulizi, M.A. Elseifi, K.K. McGhee 11/1/2008
Current crack sealant specifications focuses on utilizing simple empirical tests such as penetration, resilience, flow, and bonding to cement concrete briquettes (ASTM D3405) to measure the ability of the material to resist cohesive and adhesion failures. There is, however, no indication of the pertinence of these standard tests to predict the success of field installation and sealant performance. In an effort to bridge the gap between sealant fundamental properties and field performance, performance-based guidelines for selection of hot-poured crack sealants are currently being developed. This report focuses on the development of the apparent viscosity test method. This test uses a modified version of the Brookfield rotational viscometer. Based on the results of this study, the measured apparent viscosity of hot-poured crack sealant using SC4-27 spindle at 60rpm (20.4s-1) at the recommended installation temperature was determined to be reasonably representative of sealant viscosity at shear rates resembling field application. To ensure measurement consistency and stability, a 20min melting time and a 30-s waiting time prior to data collection are recommended. To establish precision and bias for the test, a round robin testing was conducted among seven laboratories. Average coefficient of variation within and between laboratories was found to be 2% and 6%, respectively. Using the data from the round robin testing, and based on ASTM precision and bias standard (ASTM practices C802 and C670), maximum permissible differences within a laboratory and between laboratories were found to be 4.6% and 16.9%. Considering the high polymer or crumb rubber content in crack sealants and sealant temperature sensitivity, the repeatability and reproducibility of the developed test is within an acceptable range. These values are comparable to those of asphalt binder: 3.5% and 14.5% based on ASTM D4402-02 and 3.5% and 12.1% based on AASHTO 2006 T316.
Show Abstract TPF-5(045) ICT-08-028 Characterization of Low Temperature Mechanical Properties of Crack Sealants Utilizing Direct Tension Test I.L. Al-Qadi, S.-H. Yang, J.-F. Masson, K.K. McGhee 11/1/2008
Crack sealing has been widely used as a routine preventative maintenance practice. Given its proper installation, crack sealants can extend pavement service life by three to five years. However, current specifications for the selection of crack sealants correlate poorly with field performance. The purpose of this research was to develop performance guidelines for the selection of hot-poured bituminous crack sealants at low temperature. This was accomplished by measuring the mechanical properties of crack sealant at low temperature and then developing performance criteria for material selection. The modified direct tension test (DTT), crack sealant direct tension test (CSDTT), simulates the in-situ loading behavior of crack sealants in the laboratory. A modified dog-bone specimen geometry, which allows specimens to be stretched up to 95%, is recommended. This new specimen geometry also facilitates sample preparation. Tensile force is applied to the dog-bone specimen, with its effective gauge length of 20.3mm, and is pulled at a deformation rate of 1.2mm/min. Fifteen sealants were tested at various temperatures, and three performance parameters are suggested as indicators of sealant performance: extendibility, percent modulus reduction, and strain energy density. Extendibility, which is used to assess the degree of deformation undergone by a sealant at low temperature before it ruptures or internal damage is observed, is recommended as a measured parameter to be included in the performance-based guidelines for the selection of hot-poured crack sealants. Extendibility thresholds were defined as function of low service temperatures. The CSDT is conducted at +6oC above the lowest in service temperature because of the relatively high test loading rate compared to in-situ crack sealant movement rate.
Show Abstract TPF-5(045) ICT-08-029 Characterization of Low Temperature Creep Properties of Crack Sealants Using Bending Beam Rheometry I.L. Al-Qadi, S.-H. Yang, M.A. Elseifi, S. Dessouky, A. Loulizi, J.-F. Masson, K.K. McGhee 11/1/2008
Crack sealing has been widely used as a routine preventative maintenance practice. Given its proper installation, crack sealants can extend pavement service life by three to five years. However, current specifications for the selection of crack sealants correlate poorly with field performance. The purpose of this research was to develop performance guidelines for the selection of hot-poured bituminous crack sealants at low temperature. In this part of the research, the creep behavior of crack sealant at low temperature is measured and performance criteria for material selection were developed. Because various pavement and State agencies are well acquainted with and own the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), which was developed during the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), an attempt was made to utilize the same setup to test hot-poured bituminous-based crack sealants. Testing conducted in this research project indicated that the standard BBR was inappropriate for testing soft bituminous-based hot-poured crack sealant, even at -40°C. The measured deflection exceeded the BBR limit, for some sealants, after only a few seconds of loading. To address this issue, the moment of inertia of the tested beam was increased by doubling its thickness (from 6.35mm to 12.7mm). For the new beam dimensions, it was found that only 4% of the beam center deflection is due to shear, a value deemed acceptable for sealant evaluation and comparison. In an effort towards developing a robust testing procedure, 15 sealants from various manufacturers were included in the study and tested between –4°C and –40°C. In addition, five sealants, which have known field performance, were tested to validate the laboratory results and establish specification thresholds for the selection guidelines. Since stiffness calculation in the BBR test method requires that measurements be made within the linear region of viscoelastic behavior, validation of this theory was conducted for crack sealants. This was found to be generally the case with crack sealants, which allowed for the use of the time-temperature superposition. If the temperature-superposition principle is applied, the stiffness at 240s at a given temperature can be used to predict the stiffness after 5hr of loading at a temperature that is 6°C lower. With the assumption of linear viscoelastic behavior, sealants performance can be characterized through stiffness, average creep rate, and dissipated energy ratio. Stiffness was found to be sensitive to temperature changes and could be used to differentiate between sealants. The measurements of the average creep rate and the dissipated energy ratio were also found to be valuable in differentiating between sealants. In addition, numerical modeling was used to simulate the mechanical response of crack sealants at low temperatures. Parameters that may be used for evaluating crack sealant cohesive performance using the crack sealant BBR (CSBBR) are the stiffness at 240s, average creep rate, and the dissipated energy ratio. For simplicity, the first two parameters, stiffness at 240s and average creep rate, are recommended for implementation in the sealant performance grade. The recommended thresholds are maximum stiffness of 25MPa and minimum average creep rate of 0.31.
Show Abstract P-2008-01 ICT-08-030 Evaluation of Field-Produced Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Mixtures with Fractionated Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP): 2007 Illinois Tollway Field Mix Trials W. Vavrik, S. Carpenter, S. Gillen, F. Garrott, J. Behnke 10/1/2008
To test the fractionated recycled asphalt pavement (FRAP) materials, the Illinois Tollway, working through its contractors and consultants, developed and conducted a project on the applicability and feasibility of using increased RAP contents through FRAP. The goal of the program was to answer two main questions: • Can the Tollway design, produce, and construct high-quality HMA pavements with high FRAP content mixes? • Will these materials provide the same or better pavement performance as the standard mixes used by the Tollway and Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), and with performance that is consistent with pavement design procedures? In the summer of 2007, a construction contract was awarded for advance pavement work on the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway (I-90) in the Rockford area. The timing, scope, and circumstances of the I-90 project provided a rare opportunity to evaluate several different HMA concepts directly via plant mixing and field trials. This is a summary report of the field trial production mixes containing high quantities of FRAP sponsored by the Illinois Tollway. The results of these field trials show that the Tollway can design, produce, and construct high-quality HMA pavements with high FRAP content mixes. Further, the laboratory evaluation of these mixes shows that their performance is expected to be similar to currently used materials and consistent with current pavement design procedures. The issue of asphalt cement grade bumping was evaluated with the field trials and, based on these results, there is no need to double bump the asphalt cement grade within the design criteria.
Show Abstract R27-015 FHWA-ICT-08-025 Regional Warehouse Trip Production Analysis, Chicago Metro Area, September, 2008 J.B. DeVries and S.V. Dermisi 10/1/2008
This research report provides primary research data and analysis on heavy truck trip generation and characteristics from regional distribution centers (RDC) and similar facilities in an effort to facilitate future public policy making regarding roadway transportation needs as well as land-use and economic development decisions. The report also provides secondary data and information on intermodal freight transportation - its growth and its economic impacts – to provide a regional, national, and international context for the research. The primary data was obtained from a field survey of 12 distribution centers of various scales (7 of them regional) in Northeast Illinois. The 12 facilities and their supervisory personnel were visited by the research team and analyzed in depth for their general business characteristics (e.g. type of goods, number of employees, hours of operation etc.), property characteristics (e.g. location, facility size, ceiling height) and their truck trip productions (e.g. number of arrivals-departures, geographic distribution of inbound-outbound movement, volume per quarter etc.). The findings of this research project in reference to the 12 facilities indicate the uniqueness and significant complexity of the distribution centers. There is clear evidence of an increase in size (sq. ft & ceiling) and automation (racking systems) of the newer facilities as well as 24-hour operations. The comparison of daily heavy truck movement shows significant arrival concentration between 8am-10am and 8pm- 6am. In contrast the heaviest departure activity is between 4-6pm. The majority of originating freight is from the Midwest with the outbound distributions also being allocated regionally then nationally and internationally (minimal allocation). Another result was the increased volume concentration in the third quarter of each year between July and September. The above results along with the significant expansions of RDC facilities in the last few years indicate the additional need for studying the locations of the various facilities and the heavy truck traffic volume they generate. The results should also be useful in determining the economics benefits/costs and impacts of these facilities for purposes of making infrastructure investment, economic incentive, and land use decisions.
Show Abstract R39-002 FHWA-ICT-08-022 Nondestructive Pavement Analysis Using ILLI-PAVE Artificial Neural Network Models O. Pekcan, E. Tutumluer, M. Thompson 9/1/2008
The overall objective in this research project is to develop advanced pavement structural analysis models for more accurate solutions with fast computation schemes. Soft computing and modeling approaches, specifically the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) techniques, have been implemented to develop forward and backcalculation type pavement analysis models based on the validated nonlinear ILLI-PAVE finite element solutions of the most commonly found/constructed flexible pavements in the State of Illinois. The developed pavement evaluation toolbox can be used for rapidly and more accurately backcalculating field or in-service pavement layer properties and thicknesses; predicting critical stress, strain, and deformation responses of these in-service pavements in real time from the measured Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) deflection data; and incorporating these predicted critical pavement responses, such as tensile strain for asphalt fatigue, directly into the Illinois Department of Transportation’s (IDOT’s) mechanistic pavement analysis and design with emphasis on extended life asphalt pavement design concepts. The outcome of the project’s successful research efforts now provides IDOT with a field validated nondestructive pavement evaluation professional ANN (ANN-Pro) software package to assess pavement condition through FWD backcalculation and eventually help assess pavement rehabilitation strategies. In addition, a second software package also developed in the project provides the framework SOFTSYS, Soft Computing Based Pavement and Geomaterial System Analyzer, which estimates full-depth asphalt pavement thickness when there is no thickness data available for the pavement section where FWD testing is performed.
Show Abstract R39-001 FHWA-ICT-08-017 Extended Life Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement (ELHMAP) Test Sections at ATREL S.H. Carpenter 7/1/2008
Project IHR-R39, titled “Validation of Design Concepts for Extended Life Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements (ELHMAP), was funded by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) to develop data in support of the philosophy of design and performance of the newly proposed concept of Perpetual Pavements (PP). The concept of a PP was to have a rut resistant surface, a fatigue-resistant asphalt rich lower layer, and sufficient total thickness to eliminate the development of fatigue cracking. The IDOT vision of this concept was to have a rut-resistant surface layer, an intermediate layer of a typical IDOT mix, and a lower layer that may or may not need to be asphalt rich. The total thickness would produce a tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layers that is below 70 micro strain during the hottest period of the year. Because this philosophy is a significant deviation from current design principles, and with the introduction of the new Superpave mixes, a significant part of this project was to construct full-scale pavement sections representative of the ELHMAP design approach that could be tested for response variables under Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and full-scale wheel loads. This report details the construction and composition of the sections of various thicknesses over aggregate subbase and lime-modified subgrade.
Show Abstract R44 FHWA-ICT-08-020 Performance and Acceptance of Self-Consolidating Concrete: Final Report D.A. Lange, L.J. Struble, M.D. Dambrosia, L. Shen, F. Tejeda-Dominguez, B.F. Birch, A.J. Brinks 7/1/2008
Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is an important emerging material that can be used for many applications related to transportation infrastructure. SCC has an advantage over conventional concrete in that it can be easily placed without vibration or mechanical consolidation. The project was initiated to better understand how SCC performs in fresh and hardened states and to provide engineers involved in writing specifications and test procedures protocols and associated acceptance criteria to deliver successful SCC mixtures and construction practices that ensure acceptable material properties. This research project was conducted from July 2004 to June 2007. The extensive re-construction of I-74 through Peoria, IL underway during this timeframe used SCC for over 20 miles of retaining wall structures. The research served as a partnership between engineers involved in the Peoria project and the research team at the University of Illinois. This final report serves as a summary of five MS theses and Ph.D. dissertations produced by the UIUC team [1-5]. In partnership with IDOT BMPR, the project contributed to six new test methods for measurement of SCC performance [6-10].
Show Abstract R27-007 FHWA-ICT-08-019 Carbon Monoxide Screen for Signalized Intersections COSIM, Version 3.0 S. Peters 7/1/2008
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) currently uses the computer screening model Illinois CO Screen for Intersection Modeling (COSIM) to estimate worst-case CO concentrations for proposed roadway projects affecting signalized intersections. The original model was developed as part of the Illinois Transportation Research Center (ITRC) research project IIIA-H1, FY 97, completed in October 1999. Modeled results from Version 1.0 and 1.1 of COSIM are based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) mobile source emission model, MOBILE5b, and roadway dispersion model, CAL3QHC v 2.0 (Larson, 1999). The second version of COSIM was released in 2003. Version 2.0 incorporated new emission factor (EF) tables developed using USEPA’s updated version of the MOBILE model called MOBILE6. In addition to updating the emission factors used in COSIM, pre-screen criteria for determining when COSIM needs to be used for a roadway project were developed and incorporated into COSIM as a Pre-Screen feature (Larson, 2003). In 2007, regulatory changes in the Illinois vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) program prompted the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) to recommend that IDOT update COSIM with new EF tables using the MOBILE6.2 model. Based on this recommendation, IDOT and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) provided funding to update the COSIM model. As part of the update, IDOT also requested that the methodology used in creating the original Pre-Screen criteria be reevaluated and possibly revised based on the findings of the evaluation. This report provides technical documentation on the updates and revisions made to Version 3.0 of COSIM finalized in June 2008.
Show Abstract R27-016 FHWA-ICT-08-018 Truckers' Park/Rest Facility Study P. Beltemacchi, L. Rohter, J. Selinsky, T. Manning 7/1/2008
This study examined the current state of truck parking and rest area facilities in the Northeast Illinois Region to determine if and how problems from truck parking affect freight transportation infrastructure, safety, and the region’s economy and environment. A taxonomic study of truck traffic volume and truck parking availability was completed. Truck parking sites for this report comprise private and public sites. Interviews were conducted with state, county, municipal authorities, and truck drivers. The primary problems found involved two groups of truckers. One group is the independent, over-the-road drivers with Chicagoland deliveries and pickups. This group has fewer resources available for securing parking when needed. These truckers are responsible for much of the ‘nuisance’ parking in residential, retail, or manufacturing areas. The second group contributing to nuisance parking is local company drivers who park in areas designed for over-the-road truckers and access ramps. The consequences of nuisance parking include safety hazards, problematic environmental effects from emissions and toxins, and a diminished freight transportation system affecting the local economy. Recommendations are given. Solutions include: improving parking sites by creating additional parking for the drivers needing it; and re-using brownfield sites, underutilized retail and manufacturing parking areas, and seasonally affected sites to create additional parking. Communication of site availability via radio or other means is also proposed. Since the impacts and needs are diffused over the region, further study of both procedural, such as the development of design guides, and programmatic private and public solutions are proposed.
Show Abstract R27-003 FHWA-ICT-08-016 Design and Concrete Material Requirements for Ultra-Thin Whitetopping J. Roesler, A. Bordelon, A. Ioannides, M. Beyer, D. Wang 6/1/2008
The objectives of this research were to provide the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) with an ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW) thickness design method and guidelines for UTW design, concrete material selection, and construction practices. A new mechanistic-empirical design method was proposed based on a modified version of the American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) design method for UTW. This proposed guide calculates the required UTW thickness based on traffic level, pavement layer geometry, climate, materials, and the pre-existing HMA condition. Laboratory testing of UTW concrete mixtures suggested many proportions and constituents can be successfully used as long as consideration is made to minimize the concrete’s drying shrinkage (e.g., limited cement content) and maintain the concrete- HMA bond. The laboratory testing coupled with previous fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) slab tests suggested that structural fibers should be utilized in future UTW projects in order to reduce the required slab thickness without increasing the concrete strength, limit the crack width, expand the required slab size, and to extend the functional service life of fractured slabs and potentially extend the performance of non-reinforced concrete joints. A residual strength ratio ( ) was proposed to characterize the performance of any FRC mixture to be used in UTW systems. This residual strength ratio can be calculated based on measured parameters from ASTM C 1609-07 and has been incorporated into the design guide to account for the structural benefits of using FRC. Finally, recommendations for saw-cut timing and construction techniques are also presented in this report.
Show Abstract R27-029 FHWA-ICT-08-015 Proceedings of the Particulate Matter Hot Spot Analysis Peer Exchange Meeting J. Lin, W. Pu, W. Zyznieuski 4/1/2008
On October 23-24, subject matter experts on particulate matter (PM) gathered at Allerton Park in Monticello to exchange ideas and experiences in project level hotspot analysis of PM, including monitoring and compliance. The attendees included staff from five Midwestern state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning organizations, the U.S. EPA, the Illinois EPA, University faculty, and the FHWA. Particulate matter is a generic term for a broad class of chemically and physically diverse substances that exist as discrete particles (liquid droplets or solids) over a wide range of sizes. It is emitted into the air through combustion exhausts or mechanical wear-and-tear from cars and trucks, power plants and factories, and construction sites. A hot-spot analysis is an estimation of likely future localized pollutant concentrations and a comparison of those concentrations to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the U.S. EPA.. In general, the peer exchange participants are concerned with making sure their new transportation projects in compliance with the recently released U.S. EPA regulations for performing PM hot-spot analyses in non-attainment and maintenance areas for transportation conformity and NEPA reporting purposes. The meeting offered the attendees opportunities to identify hot-spot requirements, discuss PM modeling uncertainties and monitoring of PM, and learn about how other states are documenting the analyses in reports. Outcomes of the meeting included documented challenges in practice, research needs, and practical guidelines which will be useful to all state DOTs. This report includes the proceedings of this meeting.
Show Abstract R27-002 FHWA-ICT-08-014 Nighttime Construction: Evaluation of Lighting Glare for Highway Construction in Illinois K. El-Rayes, L.Y. Liu, M. Elseifi, F. Pena-Mora, M. Hassan, F. Boukamp, I. Odeh 1/1/2008
This report presents the findings of a research project that studied the veiling luminance ratio (glare) experienced by drive-by motorists in lanes adjacent to nighttime work zones. The objectives of the project are to (1) provide an in-depth comprehensive review of the latest literature on the causes of glare and the existing practices that can be used to quantify and control glare during nighttime highway construction; (2) identify practical factors that affect the measurement of veiling luminance ratio (glare) in and around nighttime work zones; (3) analyze and compare the levels of glare and lighting performance generated by typical lighting arrangements in nighttime highway construction; (4) evaluate the impact of lighting parameters on glare and provide practical recommendations to reduce and control lighting glare in and around nighttime work zones; (5) develop a practical model to measure and quantify levels of glare experienced by drive-by motorists; and (6) investigate and analyze existing studies and recommendations on the maximum allowable levels of veiling luminance ratio (glare) that can be tolerated by nighttime drivers. The research work was performed in four main tasks: literature review, site visits, field studies, and model development. In the first task, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to study the latest research on quantifying and controlling lighting glare. In the second task, several nighttime highway construction sites were visited to identify practical factors that affect the measurement of glare. In the third task, field experiments were conducted to measure the levels of glare generated by commonly used construction lighting equipment and to evaluate the impact of lighting parameters on glare levels. In the fourth task, practical models were developed to enable resident engineers and contractors to measure and control the levels of glare experienced by drive-by motorists in lanes adjacent to nighttime work zones.
Show Abstract R39-004 FHWA-ICT-07-008 Dynamic Modulus Performance of IDOT Mixtures S.H. Carpenter 12/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R23 FHWA-ICT-07-013 Evaluation of Risk in End-Result Specifications for Asphalt Pavement Construction W. Buttlar and A. Manik 12/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-013 FHWA-ICT-07-011 Phase III:CRS Prediction Model Development L. Heckel, Y. Ouyang 8/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-013 FHWA-ICT-07-012 Update of Condition Rating Survey (CRS) Calculation/Prediction Models: Final Report L. Heckel, Y. Ouyang 8/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-013 FHWA-ICT-07-009 Phase 2. CRS Calculation Model L.B. Heckel, Y. Ouyang 6/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract ICT/IHR R39 FHWA-ICT-07-006 HMA Dynamic Modulus: Temperature Relations G. Garcia, M.R. Thompson 6/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-014 FHWA-ICT-07-003 CVISN - CVIEW/SAFER Database Mapping Project P. Nelson, J. Hayward, J. Dillenberg 3/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-R39 FHWA-ICT-07-005 HMA Dynamic Modulus Predictive Models: A Review G. Garcia, M.R. Thompson 1/1/2007
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-010 FHWA-ICT-07-002 Proceedings of the Mobile Source Air Toxics Peer Exchange Meeting J. Lin, W. Pu, W. Zyznieuski 12/1/2006
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R39-003 FHWA-ICT-07-007 Fatigue Performance of IDOT Mixtures   S.H. Carpenter 7/1/2006
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract ICT/IHR-R36 FHWA-ICT-07-004 Assessment of the Seismic Vulnerability of Wall Pier Supported Highway Bridges on Priority Emergency Routes in Southern Illinois J. Bignell, J. LaFave, N. Hawkins 4/1/2006
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract R27-SP01 TES-142 High Tension Cable Median Barrier: A Scanning Tour Report J.C. Medina, R.F. Benekohal 1/1/2006
The Illinois Department of Transportation (DOT) coordinated a scanning tour to identify effective and efficient approaches of reducing the number and severity of freeway median crossover crashes. Representatives from Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin DOTs, and the University of Illinois, visited Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas to learn from their experiences in the use of high-tension cable barriers, and to gather information on system characteristics and performance from the states and two manufacturers of high-tension cable barrier systems. Fieldinstalled high-tension cable barrier systems from four manufacturers were observed: U.S. High Tension Cable System, Brifen WRSF, CASS, and Safence. These cable barrier systems seem to perform similarly when hit by passenger vehicles. The performance at redirecting or stopping vehicles was reported to be excellent, and no major drawback of using high-tension cable barrier systems was found. It was reported that crash severity was reduced significantly compared to other barrier systems and no fatalities had been recorded on crashes at locations with hightension cable barriers. Some issues pertaining to optimum cable location, long-term benefit-cost analysis, TL-3 versus TL-4 requirements, 3-cable versus 4-cable systems, and others need additional exploration and experience to be addressed more precisely.
Show Abstract P-2005-04 TES-140 Effect of High and Low Temperatures on UPS Systems for Intersection Traffic Signals M. Chitturi, R. Benekohal 9/1/2005
Temperature significantly affects the performance of UPS systems. Four different UPS systems were evaluated at sub-zero temperatures and hot temperatures from -25 °C to +72 °C (-13 °F to +162 °F). At high temperatures, tests were performed to ascertain the run times under normal signal operation, whether the UPS shutsdown the charging and that there is no gassing of the batteries. At sub-zero temperatures tests were performed to find the run times under normal, flashing and a combination of normal and flashing modes of operation. All the UPS systems showed longer run times as the temperature increased and drastically shorter run times as the temperature decreased. For normal operation at +72 °C condition, the percentage change in run time relative to room temperature ranged from +6% to +26%. Relative to room temperature the percentage change in run time at -25 °C condition ranged from -32% to -80% for normal operation. At the coldest temperature, the increase in duration of flashing compared to duration of normal operation ranged from 89% to 158% and the increase in combination of normal and flashing duration compared to normal operation duration ranged from 35% to 81%. It is recommended to switch to flashing or a combination of normal and flashing mode of operation in cold temperatures to increase the run time. It was also found that a UPS with a greater battery capacity may not yield greater run times under all temperature conditions.
Show Abstract P-2005-03 TES-139 Evaluation of Three Recent Models of UPS for Intersection Traffic Signals with LED M. Chitturi, R. Benekohal 7/1/2005
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems are used to power the intersection traffic signals that have Light Emitting Diode (LED) signal modules, in case of a power failure. The objective of this study was to test the PB2000ITS UPS manufactured by US Traffic Corp., ME1000 UPS from TechPower Developments Inc and DUI 24M11 from Dimensions Unlimited Inc, and verify if they meet the Illinois DOT’s specification for UPS systems for traffic signals with LED modules. These were the most updated models furnished by the manufacturers at the time. Multiple tests with full load (approximately 700 W) were conducted at room temperature to determine charge and discharge times. For PB2000ITS the average run time was 3:31 and average recharge time was 16:25 at room temperature. For ME1000, the average discharge and recharge times were 2:32 and 42:16 respectively at room temperature. For DUI 24M11 the average discharge and recharge times were 3:57 and 18:58 respectively at room temperature. All the UPS systems meet the majority of the IDOT Specification requirements, but had some minor shortcomings.
Show Abstract P-2005-01 TES-136 GIS-based Intersection Inventory System (GIS-IIS):Integrating GIS, Traffic Signal Data and Intersection Images D. Sun, R.F. Benekohal, M. Girianna 2/1/2005
This study developed a GIS-based Intersection Inventory System (GIS-IIS) for the signalized intersections on the state-maintained highway system of IDOT District 6. GIS-IIS is a tool to have an easy access to intersection inventory data, photographs, and videos of each approach as well as an ability to query the information. It is set up to be expended to include other types of intersection related data. Procedures were developed to field data collection and processing along with a process for integrating multimedia and other traffic signal information into the GIS framework. It is recommended to expand the scope of GIS-IIS so it becomes a statewide intersection inventory system. The methods of expanding GIS-IIS to create a comprehensive information system that incorporates information such as traffic, geometric, construction, maintenance, and intersection accident data should be studied.
Show Abstract P-2005-02 TES-137 Investigation of Aggregate Shape Effects on Hot Mix Performance Using an Image Analysis Approach E.Tutumluer, T. Pan, S.H. Carpenter 2/1/2005
The objectives of this FHWA pooled fund research project included the measurement of imaging based volumetric and morphological indices of coarse aggregates and their correlations with laboratory and field performance results of asphalt concrete mixes as a wave of future in the development of asphalt pavement science and technology. The study partners were the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT), state highway agencies of Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, and South Carolina, and the FHWA Central Federal Lands and Highways Division. In Phase I of the study, the readily available image analysis device, University of Illinois Aggregate Image Analyzer (UIAIA), was used for validation and development of imaging based morphological indices, i.e., flat and elongated (F&E) ratio, angularity index (AI) and surface texture (ST) index, of the coarse aggregate used in the national NCAT Pavement Test Track rutting study and in typical asphalt mixes obtained from the pooled fund participating agencies. In Phase II, all UIAIA determined NCAT coarse aggregate shape indices indicated good correlations individually with the field rutting data from the NCAT Pavement Test Track with the ST index giving the best correlation and the AI giving the next best correlation. The UIAIA determined coarse aggregate shape indices were also correlated to the laboratory resilient modulus and permanent deformation test results of the participating agency specimens. For a total of 18 Superpave asphalt mix designs studied, the effects of the AI and ST indices on the hot mix asphalt resilient moduli and permanent deformations were especially significant from the test results when evaluated according to the below the restricted zone (BRZ) aggregate gradations. The resilient modulus test data, when grouped according to asphalt binder grade and/or stiffness, generally demonstrated a much better relationship with the coarse aggregate morphology. The increased stability and reduced permanent deformation or rutting potential trends of the most dense graded asphalt mixtures studied herein using the UIAIA approach were more favorably influenced primarily by the increased surface texture or roughness property of coarse aggregate particles.
Show Abstract IHR-R25 TES-135 Performance Evaluation of Longitudinal Pipe Underdrains J. Stein, B. Dempsey 11/1/2004
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-2004-05 TES-134 Findings of the Focus Group Meetings for the Pilot Study of Advisory On-Board Vehicle Warning Systems at Railroad Grade Crossings R. Benekohal 6/1/2004
This report contains the results from several meetings of three different focus groups. The meetings were conducted as a part of the evaluation for the Pilot Study of Advisory On-Board Vehicle Warning Systems at Railroad Grade Crossings. The focus groups were used to obtain in-depth information about driver-perception, driver-system interaction, and other related issues. The three focus groups were drivers, operation managers, and members of the Project Management Committee (PMC)/Technical Oversight Committee (TOC). This Pilot Study used commercially available equipment that did not meet the system reliability standards promised by the contracting team and required for this particular application. False alerts ruined the trust of the drivers and the project team for the In-Vehicle Receiver (IVR) system. The driver's interest was reduced due to repeated false alerts, the long development period before deployment, and annoying noise when the IVR was activated (beeping). A lot of drivers did not report the false alerts because it involved additional paperwork. Drivers preferred the combination of audible and visual messages to the individual (visual only or audible only) message. The visual mode by itself was ineffective during the daytime since it was not clearly readable and usually did not increase the drivers’ awareness of the approaching trains. However, during the nighttime this mode worked well. Drivers did not understand the necessity to have the IVR system at crossings with existing active warning devices, but they understood that at unprotected crossings, the system could be very valuable. Suggestions were also made to improve the effectiveness of the IVR system.
Show Abstract P-2004-01 TES-130 Analyses of Drivers' Opinions about Railroad Grade Crossings Traffic Control Devices and Safety: Background Survey R. Benekohal, M. Aycin 3/1/2004
This first survey obtained background information and opinions/experiences on participating drivers about railroad crossings. A total of 752 professional drivers representing 34 companies participated in the survey. Drivers gave an average effectiveness rating of 4.7 for crossing gates, 4.5 for flashing lights, 3.5 for clanging bell, 3.3 for train horn, 3.1 for crossbuck signs, and 3.0 for advance warning signs (5 means very high and 1 means very low). About 47% of the drivers said that railroad crossings present a significant driving hazard above normal driving conditions, but 46% said they do not. Seventy four percent of the drivers said that most railroad crossings are adequately protected/have adequate safety warning devices. However, 22% said that the crossings need more protection/more warning devices. The perception of hazards does not depend on the frequency of crossing railroad tracks or the number of times the drivers stop at the crossings. The perception of hazards does not influence the rating of the effectiveness of the warning devices. However, the perception of hazards influences the drivers’ views on the current standard of railroad grade crossing devices. The precautions drivers take when crossing the tracks are influenced by their perception of hazards and the adequacy of the current standard of warning devices. Drivers who thought crossings needed more protective warning devices rely on the train horn and advance warning signs more than other groups of drivers. Their view of the current standard of railroad warning devices also depends on the type of vehicle they drive. A higher proportion of the drivers in the group that thinks that railroad crossings need more protection drove a bus most frequently.
Show Abstract P-2004-02 TES-131 Analyses of the Driver's Responses (In Survey Number 2) to the In-Vehicle Receiver (IVR) After Experiencing One Mode of Operation R. Benekohal, C. Rawls 3/1/2004
Survey Number 2 (out of four surveys) was conducted three months after the IVR system was operational. During the period, the participating drivers received only one type of message from their IVRs, either an audible or a visual message. The audible and visual groups gave similar effectiveness ratings for all warning devices except the clanging bell. The visual group rated the clanging bell higher than the audible group. The IVR average effectiveness rating from the audible group was 3.3 and from the visual group it was 3.4 using a 5.0 scale. The effectiveness of the IVR was similar to the crossbuck and advance warning signs, but lower than the crossing gate, flashing lights, clanging bell, and the train horn. The audible and visual groups trusted the IVR to the same degree. About 60.6% of the audible group and 58.4% of the visual group trusted the IVR to give an accurate warning of a train approaching/occupying the equipped crossings. The drivers in general were satisfied with the quality of the message from their IVR. For the visual mode, 51.6% of the drivers rated the overall quality of the message as good or excellent, 26.7% as fair, 15.0% said it was poor, and 6.7% had no opinion or did not respond. For the audible mode, 52.5% rated the overall quality of the audible message excellent or good, 14.6% as fair, 15.9% said it was poor, and 17% did not have an opinion or did not respond. A small percentage (14 16%) of drivers in the audible group said either the tone was too loud, too harsh or piercing, or it beeped for too long.
Show Abstract P-2004-03 TES-132 Analyses of Drivers’ Responses to In-Vehicle Receiver (IVR) after Experiencing Two Modes of Operation R.F. Benekohal, C.G. Rawls 3/1/2004
This report contains the results of the third survey (out of four surveys) that was conducted six months after the IVR system was operational. Drivers who had the IVR in the audible (visual) mode for the first three months would have switched to the visual (audible) mode for the next three months. The audible and visual groups gave similar average effectiveness ratings to all of the warning devices except the flashing lights, clanging bell, and IVR. The audible group rated these three devices higher than the visual group. The IVR average effectiveness rating from the audible group was 3.8 using a 5.0 scale, significantly higher than 2.7 from the visual group. The visual warning message from the visual IVR was not as effective in attracting attention of the drivers as the beeping sound from the audible IVR. This is reflected in its effectiveness rating. The effectiveness rating for the audible mode of IVR was significantly higher than that of the advance warning and the crossbuck signs, similar to that of the train horn, and lower than that of the flashing lights, the crossing gate, and the clanging bell. The effectiveness rating for the visual IVR was significantly lower than that of all other warning devices, except the advance warning sign. The effectiveness rating of the visual IVR was similar to that of the advance warning sign. A significantly higher proportion of the audible group (72%) compared to the visual group (47%) trusted the IVR to give an accurate warning of a train approaching/occupying the equipped crossings.
Show Abstract P-2004-04 TES-133 Analyses of Drivers' Responses in Final Surveys to the In-Vehicle Receiver (IVR) R. Benekohal, C. Rawls 3/1/2004
The drivers who received a combined audible and visual message (combination group) responded that the average effectiveness rating of the IVR was3.6 using a 5.0 scale. This was higher than the 2.5 rating from the drivers who received only a visual message throughout the study (visual-plus group). The combination group gave the IVR a rating that was similar to the clanging bell and the train horn, lower than the ratings for the crossing gate and flashing lights, but higher than the ratings for the advance warning and crossbuck signs. The visual-plus group gave IVR a rating that was similar to the advance warning sign, but was lower than the ratings of the other warning devices. About 61% of the combination group trusted the IVR to give an accurate warning of a train presence compared to 33% for the visual-plus group. <br><br>For participating drivers who had experience with the audible, visual, and combination modes, the IVR had a high or very high ability to attract the attention of 71.0% using the audible mode, 26.7% using the visual mode, and 77.2% using the combination mode. Approximately 54.9% of the drivers preferred the combination mode, 20.1% of the drivers preferred the audible mode, and 3.7% preferred the visual mode. About 58.5%, of the drivers indicated that none of the warning methods was a significant distraction while driving. However, the IVR distracted 7.3% of the drivers in the combination mode, 4.9% in the visual mode, and 15.2% in the audible mode. <br><br>Overall, 47.1% of the drivers were in favor of the IDOT installing IVR systems at more railroad crossings, while 31.1% were not, and about 21.8% did not have an opinion or did not answer this question. Given a choice, 44.7% of the drivers said they would continue to use the IVR, 42.2 % said they would not, and 12.7% gave no opinion.
Show Abstract P-2003-03 TES-127 Evaluation of UPS for Intersection Traffic Signals with LED's: Findings for Myers PB-1250PC UPS M. Chitturi, R. Benekohal 12/1/2003
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems are used to power the intersection traffic signals that have Light Emitting Diode (LED) signal modules, in case of a power failure. The objective of this study was to test the PB-1250PC UPS manufactured by Myers Power Products and verify if it meets the Illinois DOT’s specification for UPS. Multiple tests with full load (approximately 700 W) and partial loads (flashing reds with about 350W) were conducted at room temperature to determine charge and discharge times. The time to fully charge the batteries was on average 14hrs 17min. The UPS powered a full load for 2hrs 15mins. When powering a full load, the UPS took 1hr 8min to reach 40% battery level. After reaching the 40% level, the UPS powered the flashing reds for 1hr 46min. Myers PB-1250PC UPS meets the majority of the IDOT Specification requirements. It has three major and some minor shortcomings that can be corrected to satisfy all IDOT Specification requirements. The major shortcomings of this model are: the model does not have a NO and NC contact closure for indicating inverter/charger failure: the manufacturer gives a 48 hr burn-in period to each unit instead of 100 hrs required by IDOT specification, the fan in the battery cabinet runs on 48VDC instead of AC power.
Show Abstract P-2003-04 TES-128 Evaluation of UPS for Intersection Traffic Signals with LED's: Findings for Alpha Novus 1000 UPS M. Chitturi, R. Benekohal 12/1/2003
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems are used to power the intersection traffic signals that have Light Emitting Diode (LED) signal modules, in case of a power failure. The objective of this study was to test the Novus 1000 UPS manufactured by Alpha Technologies and verify if it meets the Illinois DOT’s specification for UPS. Multiple tests with full load (approximately 700 W) and partial loads (flashing reds with about 350W) were conducted at room temperature to determine charge and discharge times. The time to fully charge the batteries was on average 16hrs 37min. The UPS powered a full load for 3hrs 27mins. When powering a full load, the UPS took 1hr 56min to reach 40% battery level. After reaching the 40% level, the UPS powered the flashing reds for 3hr 30min. Alpha Novus 1000 UPS meets the majority of the IDOT Specification requirements. It has two major and some minor shortcomings that can be corrected to satisfy all IDOT Specification requirements. The major shortcomings of this model are: this model does not have a NO and NC contact closure for indicating inverter/charger failure. The manufacturer gives a 16 hr burn-in period to each unit.
Show Abstract P-2003-05 TES-129 Evaluation of UPS for Intersection Traffic Signals with LED's: Findings for TechPower M1000 UPS M. Chitturi, R. Benkohal 12/1/2003
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems are used to power the intersection traffic signals that have Light Emitting Diode (LED) signal modules, in case of a power failure. The objective of this study was to test the M 1000 UPS manufactured by TechPower Developments Inc. and verify if it meets the Illinois DOT’s specification for UPS. Multiple tests with full load (approximately 700 W) and partial loads (flashing reds with about 350W) were conducted at room temperature to determine charge and discharge times. The time to fully charge the batteries was consistently greater than 24 hrs. The UPS powered a full load for 2hrs 37mins. When powering a full load, the UPS took 1hr 35min to reach 40% battery level. After reaching the 40% level, the UPS powered the flashing reds for 2hr 10min. TechPower M 1000 UPS has some major and some minor shortcomings that can be corrected to satisfy all IDOT Specification requirements. This model does not have a NO and NC contact closure for indicating that the batteries reached 40% level. The manufacturer gives a 5 hr burn-in period to each unit. The supplied unit was taking approximately 31 hours to fully charge the batteries. The supplied batteries are 55 Amp-hr while the specification requires them to be at least 65 Amp-hr.
Show Abstract P-2003-06 TES-121 A Comparison Between the Turn On and Turn Off Characteristics of Incandescent and LED Traffic Signal Modules R.F. Benekohal, M. Girianna, M.V. Chitturi 12/1/2003
Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has been replacing the incandescent traffic signal modules with LED modules at various intersections. Using LED modules from different manufacturers on the same intersection approach may create an unsynchronized turn on and turn off characteristics that may be noticeable to some motorists. The objective of this study was to compare the turn on and turn off characteristics of incandescent and LED modules. Data was collected and analyzed to determine the turn on and turn off characteristics of incandescent and LED (Gelcore and Dialight) traffic signal modules. Several measures to quantify the signal modules’ characteristics were introduced. These measures included fade in and fade out times, turn on and turn off delay, overlaps/gaps of colors between consecutive phase intervals. For all colors, the LED lenses had shorter fade in times when compared with the incandescent lens. The fade in time for LED Dialight was shorter than that for LED Gelcore, for all the three colors. For solid green, the LED Dialight lens had the longest fade out time. For yellow and red, the LED Dialight lenses had shorter fade out times when compared to the other two lenses. For solid yellow and red, the incandescent lens had the longest fade out time. Except for LED Dialight solid red, all LED lenses turned on a fraction of second later than the corresponding incandescent lenses. LED Dialight solid red lens turned on earlier than the incandescent solid red lens. Except for LED Gelcore solid green lens all the LED lenses turned off a fraction of second earlier than the corresponding incandescent lenses.
Show Abstract P-2003-02 TES-126 High Performance Concrete for Transportation Structures D. Lange 6/1/2003
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-2003-01 TES-124 Structural Condition and Service Load Performance of Deteriortated Pretensioned Deck Beam Bridges N. Hawkins 5/1/2003
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-R32 TES-141 Accellerated Pavement Testing of Extended Life Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Sections E. Kohler, J. Roesler 12/1/2006
Ten CRCP sections were built at the ATREL full-scale testing facility, with five sections being tested under accelerated traffic loading conditions and five sections evaluated for induced transverse cracks. The opening and closing of cracks was measured at several transverse cracks, along with vertical deflections, transverse strains at the top of the slab, and internal pavement temperature. Two procedures were developed to determine crack width from the measurement of crack closing. These procedures used the horizontal deformation caused by changing the vertical load level or temperature condition to determine the in situ crack width. By calibrating the crack width model presented in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (ME-PDG), crack width values obtained under different temperature conditions could be standardized. The model was adapted to predict crack width at any depth in the slab and an enhancement is proposed to use the model for predicting short-term changes in crack width. Continuous surveying of the pavements for more than two years and the sequential application of a large number of rolling-wheel loads on each section allowed for the collection of response data and observation of CRCP failure mechanism. Comparisons are presented regarding the elastic responses in sections with different design features (PCC thickness, steel content, and steel depth). Under conditions of small crack width (less than 0.15 mm), load transfer capacity at the transverse cracks remained intact despite heavy traffic loads and seasonal thermal cycles. Failure of the CRCP sections resulted from permanent deformation in the supporting layers. This report includes evaluation of crack width variability and use of FWD to characterize in situ crack width of field CRC pavements. Recommendations are made for the improvement of CRCP construction based on early age temperature, concrete drying shrinkage, and induction of transverse cracks. crack width from the measurement of crack closing. These procedures used the horizontal deformation caused by changing the vertical load level or temperature condition to determine the in situ crack width. By calibrating the crack width model presented in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (ME-PDG), crack width values obtained under different temperature conditions could be standardized. The model was adapted to predict crack width at any depth in the slab and an enhancement is proposed to use the model for predicting short-term changes in crack width. Continuous surveying of the pavements for more than two years and the sequential application of a large number of rolling-wheel loads on each section allowed for the collection of response data and observation of CRCP failure mechanism. Comparisons are presented regarding the elastic responses in sections with different design features (PCC thickness, steel content, and steel depth). Under conditions of small crack width (less than 0.15 mm), load transfer capacity at the transverse cracks remained intact despite heavy traffic loads and seasonal thermal cycles. Failure of the CRCP sections resulted from permanent deformation in the supporting layers. This report includes evaluation of crack width variability and use of FWD to characterize in situ crack width of field CRC pavements. Recommendations are made for the improvement of CRCP construction based on early age temperature, concrete drying shrinkage, and induction of transverse cracks.
Show Abstract P-2002-04 TES-120 Driver's Evaluation of Performance of LED Traffic Signal Modules R. Benekohal, M. Chitturi 12/1/2002
This study evaluated the performance of the LED modules from four manufacturers (Leotek, Gelcore, Dialight and Precision Solar) who provided the required number of LEDs for testing and evaluation at the Traffic Operations Lab. The criteria for evaluation were drivers’ perception of brightness, dottiness, and color compared to incandescent lenses. For circular red indication, brightness, dottiness, and color of Dialight LED module was similar to incandescent lens, but the other three were brighter, more dottier, and darker than incandescent lens. For circular yellow indication, brightness of Precision Solar LED was the same while the others were brighter than incandescent lens; they all were dottier and darker (orange-yellow) than incandescent lens. For circular green indication all the LED modules were brighter, dottier, darker (bluish) than incandescent lens. For yellow arrow indication, Leotek and Dialight are the same while Gelcore and Precision Solar were brighter than incandescent lens; all the LED modules were dottier and darker than incandescent lens. For green arrow indication, Leotek was the same as incandescent while Dialight, Gelcore and Precision Solar were brighter than incandescent lens; all the LED modules were dottier and darker than incandescent lens. The findings, though limited, indicated that there could be a significant difference in the perception of the LED modules by the older drivers. It is recommended to further study the effect of aging on the perception of the LED modules.
Show Abstract P-2002-05 TES-122 Longevity of Highway Pavements in Illinois- 2000 Update N. Gharaibeh, M. Darter 12/1/2002
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-R32 TES-119 Construction of Extended Life Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements at ATREL E.Kohler, G. Long, J. Roesler 12/1/2002
This report summarizes the design and construction of ten extended life continuously reinforced concrete pavement test sections at the Advanced Transportation, Research, and Engineering Laboratory (ATREL). The ten sections were designed and constructed to determine 1 - thickness design curves versus traffic levels, 2 - the viability and necessity of 2 layers of reinforcing steel, 3 - the design steel content to achieve the desired crack width and spacing, 4 - the optimal depth of steel from the Portland cement concrete (PCC) surface, 5 - the load transfer efficiency deterioration rate across the cracks, and 6 - the effect of uniformly induced crack spacing on the performance of the CRCP. <br><br>The soil investigation on the test site along with dynamic cone penetrometer tests were included in this report. Material properties were gathered and documented for each pavement layer. The instrumentation and data acquisition system used to collect early-age and long-term temperature, strain, and deflection measurements were summarized. Falling weight deflectometer test results and initial crack surveys were presented.
Show Abstract P-2002-01 TES-116 Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Activities and Needs in IDOT District Offices J.R. Chapman, RF. Benekohal 5/1/2002
While most of the ITS activities are a part of Gary-Chicago-Milwaukee (GCM) Corridor project, there are many other ITS projects throughout Illinois. This study summarizes the needs, current and planned ITS activities in IDOT District Offices. Interviews were conducted with key District personnel involved with ITS. The districts are looking to ITS as a tool to get more done and improve their services to the public, however, they are making decisions based on limited information they can get. The districts are very concerned that new ITS projects are being handed down with only construction funds. This poses a concern because ITS installations will need maintenance, but those funds are not provided, and will have to trade off with existing maintenance needs. The districts are very concerned with their workloads. ITS is becoming an additional responsibility for existing employees who were already overworked. Districts are implementing various levels of ITS on their own initiative, and there are many projects that each district would like to use ITS as a part of. The districts are learning about ITS applications from vendors who are trying to sell products. Several recommendations are made to deal with these issues
Show Abstract P-2002-02 TES-117 Performance Evaluation of the Pilot Study of Advisory On-board Vehicle Warning Systems at Railroad Grade Crossing M.F. Aycin, R.F. Benekohal 5/1/2002
The Pilot Study of Advisory On-Board Vehicle Warning Systems at Railroad Grade Crossings was conducted to provide roadway vehicles approaching the specially equipped grade crossings with an on-board/advisory warning of a train approaching or occupying the grade crossing. The system design was composed of a trackside transmitter assembly (TTA) and in-vehicle receiver (IVR). The TTA sent a K-band signal to the IVRs when a train was approaching or occupying the crossings. The existing Metra grade crossing controller activated the trackside system. The system was installed at five railroad grade crossings in the northern Chicago suburbs. Approximately 300 IVR units were installed in the vehicles of 38 participating organizations. This report documents issues with the operation of the overall system and corrective measures that were taken. The performance history of the pilot study is presented in a chronological order. Overall, the system performance did not meet study expectations even though replacing the original IVRs were helpful to some degree. The off-the-shelf technology used in this pilot study did not provide adequate reliability for the study environment. The concept of an on-board warning system has potential to work if a more reliable technology is used to activate the warning system. There were other challenges such as the complexities of multi-agency coordination that required time, effort, and approval from various agencies. Also, with 38 participating organizations, the pilot study encountered a number of challenges in coordinating the installation of IVRs and driver training along with retraining several hundred participant drivers when the IVRs were replaced.
Show Abstract P-2002-03 TES-118 Test to Failure of a 54 Ft. Deteriorated Pretensioned Precast Concrete Deck Beam N.M. Hawkins, J.B. Fuentes 5/1/2002
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-2001-02 TES-115 Light Emiting Diode (LED) Traffic Signal and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Usage: A Nationwide Survey J. Chapman, R.F. Benkohal 12/1/2001
A national survey was conducted to gather information regarding the use of light-emitting diode (LED) traffic lights and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems in traffic signal controller cabinets. A survey was mailed out to the individual districts within Illinois DOT, all 49 other state DOTs, and to 79 of the largest cities in the US to find out the degree of utilization and satisfaction about LED traffic signals and UPS systems. At the State DOT level, there was a significant usage of LED lights in traffic signals. The most commonly used brands were Gelcore and Dialight. These accounted for approximately 95% of all LEDs in use at the state level. These results are also echoed in that both Dialight and Gelcore scored over 3.5 (out of 4.0) on the opinion-based degree of satisfaction ratings. At the city level, Dialight and Gelcore were also the most popular brands, and accounted for 91% of all LEDs in use. Dialight scored a near perfect rating of 3.923 and Gelcore also did very well with a satisfaction rating of 3.333. Finally, at the IDOT district level, Dialight was the most commonly used LED (accounting for about 95% of all LEDs in use), and also scored the highest satisfaction rating, at 3.833. The UPS Usage indicates that at the State DOT level, there was some usage of UPS systems, but it had not achieved widespread acceptance. From the 7 states that indicated using UPS systems, 7 different brands of UPS systems were identified. At the city level, there was even less acceptance of UPS systems at the time of this survey, with only 4 cities reported using 6 different brands. All 6 of these brands were in use by only a single city, so no average ratings were available.
Show Abstract P-2001-01 TES-113 Comparison of Delays from HCM, Synchro, PASSER II, PASSER IV, and CORSIM for an Urban Arterial R.F. Benekohal, Y.M. Elzohairy, J.E. Saak 8/1/2001
This study compared control delays computed by HCM (using HCS software), Synchro, PASSER II, PASSER IV, and CORSIM for an urban arterial. Base and optimized conditions were studied. In the base condition, the existing signal settings and traffic volumes were modeled in HCS and Synchro under three scenarios: actuated-coordinated, actuated-uncoordinated and pre-timed traffic controller. For the base condition, delays from HCM shouldn’t be directly compared to Synchro unless the precautions discussed in this report are taken. For pre-timed and actuated signals when simultaneous phases exist and one terminates ahead of the others, the results of HCM and Synchro are not comparable. For pre-timed and actuated signals where the phases terminate simultaneously, the condition analyzed won’t be comparable unless the precautions are taken. Once these precautions were taken, control delays from Synchro and HCM were not significantly different for only pre-timed uncoordinated signals. For actuateduncoordinated and for actuated-coordinated, the software are modeling different conditions. For the optimized condition, the software optimized signal settings for actuated coordinated signal controllers and calculated the delays. The delays for optimized conditions from PASSER II and PASSER IV were not significantly different than the delays for the base conditions. However, the delays from Synchro for optimized conditions were significantly lower than the delays for the base conditions. CORSIM was used to verify whether the optimized signal settings would produce lower delay if implemented in the field. The results indicated that delays for optimized conditions would not be significantly lower than the delays for the base conditions, and the lower delays given by Synchro for the optimized conditions could not be verified.
Show Abstract IHR-R24 TES-125 GIS-ILLINET Version 2.0 Pavement Management & Information System User's Guide G. Bham, N. Gharaibeh, M. Darter 6/1/2003
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-R24 TES-112 Development of a Bridge Smoothness Specification for Illinois DOT D. Rufino, K. BaRaKa, M.I. Darter 5/1/2001
Smoothness is considered to be the most important ride quality by the highway user. Although bridges are much rougher than pavements, most of the studies conducted to improve pavement smoothness have been focused solely on pavements. This report describes the effort of the University of Illinois to develop a preliminary bridge smoothness specification for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT). The preliminary specification presented in this research report is based on the testing and analysis conducted under this study and reflects the views and experience of the authors. It is emphasized that this draft specification is not intended for use in construction without significant additional development and field testing. The most suitable index and equipment are recommended based on a literature review of smoothness indices and different pieces of equipment. <br><br>In addition, International Roughness Index (IRI) and Profile Index (PI) values were computed from testing 20 recently constructed or rehabilitated IDOT bridges in Illinois using a lightweight profilometer. These data were analyzed in order to set up smoothness limits for bridges, and a correlation between IRI and PI was established.
Show Abstract P-2000-01 TES-111 Video Image Analysis of Aggregates E. Tutumluer, C. Rao, J. A. Stefanski 7/1/2000
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-R22 TES-110 Effects of Short Term Oven Aging on Volumetrics and Selection of N-Design B.J. McMullen, W.R. Vavrik, S.H. Carpenter 10/1/2000
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-R22 TES-109 Effect of Flat and Elongated Coarse Aggregate on Characteristics of Gyratory Compacted Samples W.R. Vavrik, R.J. Fries, S.H. Carpenter, B.D. Aho 3/1/2000
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-028 TES-103 Drivers Assessment of High Speed AVI/WIM System at a Weigh Station in Illinois R.F. Benekohal, C. M. Tirums, S. L. Wang, E. R. Forrler 1/1/2000
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-535 TES-097 Mechanistic-Empirical Evaluation of the Mn/Road Mainline Flexible Pavement Sections C. Alvarez, M.R. Thompson 6/1/1998
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-535 TES-098 Fatigue of Concrete Beams and Slabs J.R. Roesler, E.J.Barenberg 6/1/1998
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-535 TES-096 Mechanistic-Empirical Evaluation of the Mn/Road Low Volume Road Test Section N. Garg, M.R. Thompson 5/1/1998
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-540 TES-099 Work Zones and Their Impact on User Costs G.H. Bham, J.E. Hicks 3/1/1999
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-540 TES-100 Evaluation and Improvement of the CRS Prediction Models N.G. Gharaibeh, M.I. Darter, L.B. Heckel 3/1/1999
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-540 TES-101 Field Performance of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement in Illinois N.G. Gharaibeh, M.I. Darter, L.B. Heckel 3/1/1999
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-540 TES-102 Interstate 80 Pavement Rehabilitation Corridor Study C.J. Wilson, M.I. Darter 3/1/1999
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-540 TES-095 Performance of Original and Resurfaced Pavements on the Illinois Freeway System N.G. Gharaibeh, M.I. Darter, F. LaTorre, J.W. Vespa, D.L. Lippert 2/1/1997
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-533 TES-094 Interlayer Stress Absorbing Composite (ISAC) for Mitigating Reflection Cracking in Asphalt Concrete Overlays: Final Report M.T. Mukhtar, B.J. Dempsey 6/1/1996
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1995-01 TES-092 Final Report: Analysis of Truck Drivers' Opinions on Safety and Traffic Control on Highway Work Zones-Volume I: Summary of Findings R.F. Benekohal, E. Shim, P.T.V. Resende 12/1/1995
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1995-02 TES-093 Final Report: Analysis of Truck Drivers' Opinions on Safety and Traffic Control on Highway Work Zones- Volume II R.F. Benekohal, P.T.V. Resende, E. Shim 12/1/1995
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-029 TES-086 Institutional Issues in Application of IVHS Techologies to CVO in Illinois C.J. Wienrank, R.F. Benekohal 6/1/1994
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-532 TES-079 Guidelines for Evaluation of Asphalt-Overlaid Concrete Pavements K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter, D.A. Steele 6/1/1995
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-532 TES-080 Guidelines for Evaluation of Asphalt-Overlaid Concrete Pavements K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter, S.H. Carpenter 6/1/1995
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-532 TES-081 Case Studies in Asphalt-Overlaid Concrete Pavement Evaluation and Rehabilitation K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter, G.S. Petko 6/1/1995
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-532 TES-082 Rehabilitation of Asphalt-Overlaid Concrete Pavements: Final Report K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter 6/1/1995
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-532 TES-077 Performance of Bare and Resurfaced JRCP and CRCP on the Illinois Interstation Highway System- 1991 Update K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter, W.M. Rexroad 10/1/1993
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-527 TES-087 The Livingston County Test Project: An Aggregate Base Study M.R. Thompson, K.D. Hall 7/1/1993
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-529 TES-084 Development of Pavement Prediction Models Y.-H. Lee, M.I. Darter 7/1/1994
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-529 TES-085 Forecasting Pavement Rehabilitation Needs for the Illinois Interstate Highway System K.T. Hall, Y.-H. Lee, M.I. Darter, D.L. Lippert 4/1/1994
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-529 TES-068 Alternative Methods for Pavement Network Rehabilitation Management A. Mohseni, M.I. Darter, J.P. Hall 5/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-525 TES-064 Pavement Subbases: Final Report J.A. Crovetti, B.J. Dempsey 5/1/1991
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-076 Speed Reduction Methods and Studies in Work Zones: A Summary of Findings R.F. Benekohal 9/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-074 Speed Reduction Profiles of Vehicles in a Highway Construction Zone R.F. Benekohal, L. Wang, R.L. Orloski, L.M. Kastel 6/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-075 Evaluation of Work Zone Speed Limit Signs with Strobe Lights R.F. Benekohal, J. Shu 6/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-073 Effects of Police Presence on Speed in a Highway Work Zone R.F. Benekohal, P.T.V. Resende, R.L. Orloski 5/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-072 Speed Reduction Effects of Changeable Message Signs in a Construction Zone R.F. Benekohal, J. Shu 4/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-071 Speed Reduction Effects of Drone Radar in Rural Interstate Work Zones R.F. Benekohal, P.T.V. Resende, W. Zhao 3/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-070 Evaluations and Summary of Studies in Speed Control Methods in Work Zones R.F. Benekohal, L.M. Kastel, M.I. Suhale 2/1/1992
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-067 Evaluation of a Radar Activated Horn System for Speed Control in Highway Maintenance Operations R.F. Benekohal, J.S. Linkenheld 12/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-014 TES-066 Survey of Driver's Opinion About Work Zone Traffic Control on a Rural Highway R.F. Benekohal, R.L. Orloski, A.M. Hashmi 10/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-904 TES-060 Plans for Conducting a Field Study of Corn-Based Calcium Magnesium Acetate(CMA) as an Agent to Control Snow/Ice M. Herrin, E.E. Herricks, K.E. Johnson 4/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-904 TES-058 State-of-the-Art Report for the Use of Corn-Based CMA to Control Snow/Ice M. Herrin, E.E. Herricks, K.E. Johnson, J.M. Bruney 3/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-518 TES-059 Continuously Reinforced Pavements: Punchouts and Other Distresses and Implications for Design D.G. Zollinger, E.J. Barenberg 3/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-518 TES-056 Background for Development of Mechanistic Based Design Procedure for Jointed Concrete Pavements D.G. Zollinger, E.J. Barenberg 5/1/1989
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-518 TES-057 Proposed Mechanistic Based Design Procedure for Jointed Concrete Pavements D.G. Zollinger, E.J. Barenberg 5/1/1989
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-062 Prototype Network Pavement Management System for the Illinois Interstate Highway System A. Mohseni, M.I. Darter, J.P. Hall 8/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-063 Illinois Pavement Feedback Data and Management System: Final Report M.I. Darter, J.P. Hall 8/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-061 Performance of Resurfacing of JRCP and CRCP on the Illinois Interstate Highway System J.W. Vespa, K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter, James P. Hall 6/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-053 Performance of Resurfacing of JRCP and CRCP on the Illinois Interstate Highway System J.W. Vespa, K.T. Hall, M.I. Darter, J. Hall 5/1/1990
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-052 Pavement Performance Analysis of the Illinois Interstate Highway System M.E. Dwiggins, M.I. Darter, J.P. Hall, C.L. Flowers, J.B. Dubose 7/1/1989
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-054 Analysis of Traffic Loadings on Interstate Highways in Illinois M.I. Darter, R.A. Salsilli, M.E. Dwiggins, T. Fitch, A. Lundberg 6/1/1989
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-517 TES-051 Phases III & IV: Logical and Physical Design of the Illinois Pavement Feedback System: Executive Summary Report M.E. Dwiggins, M.I. Darter, J.P. Hall, C.L. Flowers, J.B. Dubose 6/1/1988
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-512 TES-065 Final Summary Report: Evaluation of Concrete Pavements Using NDT Results E.J. Barenberg, K. Petros 4/1/1991
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-512 TES-050 Evaluation of Concrete Pavements Using Nondestructive Testing Techniques E.J. Barenberg, D.A. Dietz, M.L. Woods 5/1/1988
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1986-01 FHWA-IL-UI-212 Illinois Drainage Laws: Rights and Responsibilities of Highway Authorities and Landowners Adjacent to Highways D.L. Uchtmann, C.J.W. Drablos, T.D. Bratschun, B.A. Jones Jr., D.A. Rolf, J.H. Sikora 12/1/1986
This publication is intended to provide an extensive treatment of Illinois drainage law as it applies to local, county, and state highway authorities and adjacent landowners in both agricultural and urban environments. It focuses on court decisions, state and federal statutes, and administrative regulations pertinent to drainage-related issues and disputes that may arise in a variety of circumstances.
Show Abstract HPR-3(6) TES-047 Final Report: Effectiveness of Existing Rehabilitation Techniques for Jointed Concrete Pavements D. Ortiz, E.J. Barenberg, M.I. Darter, J. Darling 8/1/1986
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-417 TES-044 Final Report: Predicting the Progression of D-Cracking D.J. Janssen, B.J. Dempsey, J.B. DuBose, A.J. Patel 2/1/1986
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-055 A Proposed Conventional Flexible Pavement Thickness Design Procedure M.R. Thompson, T.G. LaGraw 12/1/1988
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-048 A Propose Thickness Design Procedure for High Strength Stabilized Base (HSSB) Pavements M.R. Thompson 5/1/1988
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-045 A Proposed Full-Depth Asphalt Concrete Thickness Design Procedure M.R. Thompson, K. Cation 7/1/1986
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-046 Mechanistic Design Concepts for Stabilized Base Pavements M.R. Thompson 7/1/1986
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-042 Mechanistic Design Concepts for Conventional Flexible Pavements R.P. Elliott, M.R. Thompson 2/1/1985
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-041 Mechanistic Design Concepts for Full-Depth Asphalt Concrete Pavements M. Gomez, M.R. Thompson 8/1/1984
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-510 TES-038 Structural Coefficients and Thickness Equivalency Ratios M. Gomez, M.R. Thompson 6/1/1983
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-411 TES-039 Asphalt Q.A. Specifications: Influence of Significant Material Factors and Development of a Rational Payment Schedule R.P. Elliott, M. Herrin 6/1/1983
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-411 TES-036 Laboratory Testing Program for Illinois Research Project IHR-411, an Interim Report on the Investigation of Quality Assurance Specification R.P. Elliott 2/1/1983
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-410 TES-040 Recycling of Bituminous Shoulders: Laboratory Testing and Performance Predictions H. Carpenter, M. Zelaya-Nunez 2/1/1985
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-410 TES-035 Recycling of Bituminous Shoulders: Mixture and Asphalt Evaluation S.H. Carpenter 6/1/1982
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-508 TES-034 Concepts for Developing a Nondestructive Testing Based Asphalt Concrete Overlay Thickness Design Procedure P.G. Dierstein, M.R. Thompson 6/1/1982
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-508 TES-031 Nondestructive Testing of Flexible Pavements: Field Testing Program Summary J.S. Dhamrait, K.W. Wicks, M.S. Hoffman, M.R. Thompson 6/1/1981
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-508 TES-032 Mechanistic Interpretation of Nondestructive Pavement Testing Deflections P.G. Dierstein, J.S. Dhamrait, M.R. Thompson, M.S. Hoffman 6/1/1981
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1980-01 TES-030 Design Procedures for Soil Fabric-Aggregate Systems With Mirafi 500X Fabric E.J. Barenberg 10/1/1980
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-413 TES-037 Final Report: D-Cracking in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements M. P.J. Olsen, D.J. Janssen, B.J. Dempsey 2/1/1983
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-413 TES-029 Synthesis Report: D-Cracking in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements S.R. Thompson, M.P.J. Olsen, B. J. Dempsey 6/1/1980
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-606 TES-027 Final Report: Soil Water Properties of Subgrade Soils D.J. Janssen, B.J. Dempsey 4/1/1980
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1979-02 TES-026 Fabric Utilization in Transportation Support Systems (Low Deformation Criteria) M.R. Thompson, L. Road 12/1/1979
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1979-01 TRANS-012 Report of Rail Life Analysis W.W. Hay, Paul T. Bakas 3/1/1979
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-901 TES-033 Repair and Preventative Maintenance Procedures for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement I. Darter, T.L. Barnett, D.J. Morrill 6/1/1982
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-901 TES-028 Evaluation of Maintenance/Rehabilitation Alternatives for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement T.L. Barnett, M.I. Darter, N.R. Laybourne 5/1/1981
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-901 TES-024 Evaluation of Patching of Patching Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement in Illinois D.J. Maxey, M.I. Darter, S.A. Smiley 6/1/1979
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-901 TES-020 Performance of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement in Illinois S.A. LoCoursiere, M.I. Darter, S.A. Smiley 12/1/1978
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-605 TES-017 Sinkage Prediction- Subgrade Stability M.L. Traylor, M.R. Thompson 6/1/1977
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-605 TES-018 Final Report: Subgrade Stability M.R. Thompson, T.C. Kinney, M.L. Traylor, J.R. Bullard, J.L. Figueroa 6/1/1977
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-604 TES-025 Final Report: Moisture Movement and Moisture Equilibria in Pavement Systems B.J. Dempsey 9/1/1979
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-604 TES-016 A Method of Predicting Hydraulic Conductivity and Water Diffusivity for Pavement Subgrade Soils A. Elzeftawy, B.J. Dempsey 12/1/1976
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-604 TES-015 Interim Report: Moisture Movement and Moisture Equilibria in Pavement Systems B.J. Dempsey, A. Elzeftawy 7/1/1976
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1976-01 TES-011 Final Report: Economic Evaluation of Special Metallurgy Rails W.W. Hay, A.J. Reinschmidt, Paul M. Schuch, S.J. Kim, Paul T. Bakas 1/1/1976
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-507 TES-010 Evaluation of Typical Pavement Drainage Systems Using Open Graded Bituminous Aggregate Mixture Drainage Layers E.J. Barenberg, S.D. Tayabji 5/1/1974
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-505 TES-021 Factors Affecting the Structural Response of Emulsified Asphalt-Aggregate Mixtures M.I. Darter, P.L. Wilkey, S.R. Ahlfield 3/1/1978
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-505 TES-022 Development of Emulsified Asphalt Aggregate Cold Mix Design Procedure M.I. Darter, S.R. Alfield, P.L. Wilkey, Richard G. Wasill 2/1/1978
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-505 TES-019 Structural Analysis of Asphaltic Cold Mixtures Used in Pavement Bases M.I. Darter, A.J. Devos 8/1/1977
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-505 TES-013 Determination of Feasible Testing Methods for Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mix Bases M. Herrin, M.I. Darter, I. Ishai 3/1/1974
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-505 TES-008 Failure Modes and Required Properties in Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mix Bases I. Ishai, M. Herrin, D.G. Leverenz 8/1/1973
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-084 TES-007 Correlation of Pavement Behavior and Performance Between the University of Illinois Test Track and the AASHO Road Test E.J. Barenberg, B.P. Hazarika 7/1/1973
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-603 TES-014 Final Report- Data Summary: Resilient Properties of Subgrade Soils M.R. Thompson, Q.L. Robnett 6/1/1976
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-603 TES-005 Interim Report: Resilient Properties of Subgrade Soils: Phase 1-Development of Testing Procedure Q.L. Robnett, M.R. Thompson 5/1/1973
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1973-01 TRANS-009 Second Progress Report: Evaluation of Rail Sections W.W. Hay, P.M. Schuch, M.W. Franke, M.J. Mikkelsen 5/1/1973
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-406 TES-023 Final Report: Skid Resistant Characteristics of Illinois Aggregates R.L. Berger, S.J. Russell, C.R. Marek, P.J. Tarkoy, R. Ulrich 5/1/1978
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-001 TES-012 Rural At-Grade Intersection Illumination R.H. Wortman, M.E. Lipinski 5/1/1974
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-001 TES-003 Interim Report: Development of Warrants for Rural At-Grade Intersection Illumination R.H. Wortman, M.E. Lipinski, L.B. Fricke, W.P. Grimwade, A.F. Kyle 11/1/1972
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-406 TES-002 Interim Report-Phase 1: Review, Selection and Calibration of Accelerated Wear and Skid Resistance Testing Equipment C.R. Marek 11/1/1972
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-401 TES-006 Vacuum Saturation Method for Prediction Freeze-Thaw Durability of Stabilized Materials B.J. Dempsey, M.R. Thompson 12/1/1973
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-401 TES-004 Effects of Freeze-Thaw Parameters on the Durability of Stabilized Materials B.J. Dempsey, M.R. Thompson 1/1/1973
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract IHR-401 TES-001 Interim Report: Durability Testing of Stabilized Materials B.J. Dempsey, M.R. Thompson 9/1/1972
An extensive laboratory evaluation of the freeze-thaw durability of partially cemented pavement materials (lime-soil, soil-cement, and lime-flyash-aggregate mixtures) was conducted. A unique testing unit programmed with quantitative frost action data was used to conduct the freeze-thaw test. These data were representative for winter climates in central and northern Illinois. Mixture designs for the stabilized materials were developed using previously established procedures. Evaluation methods for freeze-thaw durability consisted of unconfined compressive strength, moisture content, and length change measurements. These measurements were made after curing, after five freeze-thaw cycles, and following ten freeze-thaw cycles.<br><br>Results from the freeze-thaw durability test were tabulated and briefly discussed.
Show Abstract P-1972-01 TRANS-007 Report on Remaining Service Life of 90 LB and 110 LB Rail in Burlington Northern Lines W.W. Hay, P.M. Schuch, P. Yantichargen 9/1/1972
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1972-02 TRANS-008 Application of the AAR Network Simulation System to the Illinois Central Railroad System S.J. Kim, A.J. Reinschmidt, W.W. Hay 9/1/1972
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1970-03 TRANS-005 The Influence of Wheel-Rail Contact Forces on the Formation of Rail Shells G.C. Martin, W.W. Hay 12/1/1970
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1970-02 TRANS-004 A Simulation Model of Ballast Support and the Modulus of Track Elasticity J.R. Lundgren, G.C. Martin, W.W. Hay 9/1/1970
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1970-01 TRANS-006 Report of Evaluation of Rail Sections W.W. Hay, A.B. Butler, G.C. Martin 6/1/1970
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1967-02 TRANS-003 Influence Chart for Moments in Railway Rails G.C. Martin, W.W. Hay 7/1/1967
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1967-01 TRANS-002 Method of Analysis for Determining the Coupler Forces and Longitudinal Motion of a Long Freight Train in the Over-the-Road Operation G.C. Martin, W.W. Hay 6/1/1967
Abstract not yet available.
Show Abstract P-1966-01 TRANS-001 Vertical Pressure Distribution in the Ballast Section and on the Subgrade Beneath Statically Loaded Ties M.T. Salem, W.W. Hay 7/1/1966
Abstract not yet available.